Covid-19 is a global public health crisis, which in addition to making victims is changing the living habits of the population. The objective of this study was to investigate the impacts of social isolation on the physical and mental health of older adults and to learn how they are informing themselves about the pandemic. It is a qualitative study with a phenomenological basis, composed by telephone interviews with 35 older adults (70,5 ± 4,7 years) of both genders, members of a Brazilian University of Third Age, during the period of the pandemic. The testimonies revealed a considerable degree of concern about the possibility of being infected by the virus, increased anxiety due to tragic news, the growing number of deaths, the collapse of the Brazilian economy and the rising unemployment rate. The group reported sleep disorders, joint pain, loss of appetite, weight loss, and reduced functional capacity. Everyone felt sufficiently informed about Covid-19. The main means of gaining information about the pandemic was radio, followed by TV, dialogue with family and friends, and WhatsApp. Only 30% of the participants used WhatsApp, praised because of its multiple functions and the ability to re-read the news.
Introduction: The study of the nutritional status of the elderly merits attention, since there is no consensus regarding the criteria for the evaluation of the Body Mass Index (BMI) of this population.
Durante o processo do envelhecimento, a capacidade de controle postural diminui, elevando a probabilidade de quedas e lesões. Desse modo, há necessidade de desenvolver programas de exercícios físicos, específicos, para o equilíbrio corporal, além de testes que avaliem seus efeitos. Em geral, tais testes analisam aspectos isolados, não permitindo uma estimativa precisa dos fatores inerentes ao problema, principalmente, no caso da população fisicamente independente. Um teste de equilíbrio, conhecido na Alemanha é o "GGT -Gleichgewichtstest", o qual está sendo apresentado na versão da língua portuguesa como TEC -teste de equilíbrio corporal. O TEC possui 14 itens, analisa o equilíbrio estático e dinâmico, é de fácil execução e avaliação, apresentando boa objetividade, confiabilidade e validade.
71-RPCD 12 (2): 71-81Body balance test for independent elderlies.
ABSTRACTThe capacity for postural control diminishes during the aging process, which results in a higher risk for falls and injuries. It is therefore necessary to develop specific exercise programs for body balance, as well as tests to evaluate their effects.In general, such tests analyze isolated aspects and do not permit a complete evaluation of inherent factors of the problem, especially in a physically independent population. A body balance test that is well known in Germany is the "GGT -Gleichgewichtstest", which is presented in Portuguese version as TEC -teste de equilíbrio corporal. The TEC contains 14 items, analyzes static and dynamic balance, is easy to execute and to evaluate, and has a good objectivity, reliability and validity.
Background: Functional independence and safe mobility, especially in older people, mostly rely on the ability to perform dual tasks, particularly during activities with variable-and fixed-priority attention. The aim of this study is to compare the dual-task training with progression from variable-to fixed-priority instructions versus dual-task training with variable-priority on gait speed in community-dwelling older adults. Methods: This is an assessor-and participant-blinded, two-arm, randomized controlled trial with 60 communitydwelling male and female older adults between the ages of 60 and 80 years old. Participants will be randomly allocated into either the intervention group or the control group using a computer-generated permuted block randomization schedule. The intervention group will undertake a progressive dual-task training in which the participants will be progressively submitted to dual-task walking and postural balance exercises with variable-to fixed-priority instructions. The control group will be submitted to dual-task training with variable-priority attention exercises. Both groups will receive 48 sessions lasting for 60 min each over 24 weeks. The primary outcome will be the gait speed under single-and dual-task conditions. Secondary outcomes will include spatiotemporal gait parameters, functional balance, executive function, falls, quality of life, and depression symptoms. All the analyses will be based on the intention-to-treat principle.
Lower extremity muscle strength (LEMS) and body balance (BB) are essential for older adults to maintain an upright posture and autonomously perform their basic activities of daily living. This study aimed to examine whether LEMS and BB mediate the relationship between physical activity (PA) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in a large sample of community-dwelling older adults. This is a cross-sectional study carried out with 802 individuals, 401 males and 401 females (69.8 ± 5.6 years), residents of the Autonomous Region of Madeira, Portugal. PA and HRQoL were assessed by the Baecke Questionnaire and e SF-36, respectively. LEMS was assessed by the Senior Fitness Test and BB by the Fullerton Advance Balance (FAB). The serial mediation pathway model pointed out that LEMS and BB partially mediated the association between PA and HRQoL in approximately 39.6% and 47%, respectively. The total variance in HRQoL explained by the entire model was 98%. Our findings may indicate the role that LEMS and BB play in the relationship between PA and HRQoL in the older population.
Quedas são comuns entre a população idosa, consideradas como questão de saúde pública, responsáveis por alto grau de morbidade e mortalidade. Isso evidencia a realização de estudos teóricos que qualifiquem o entendimento sobre a relação entre queda e seus fatores de risco; a fisiopatologia dos distúrbios do equilíbrio e da marcha; e a identificação precoce da "queda idiopática" (sem causa evidente). Assim, com base na literatura especializada, o presente estudo apresenta uma visão geral sobre o papel dos sistemas sensoriais responsáveis pela regulação do controle postural, evidenciando as principais estratégias utilizadas por idosos para a manutenção do controle postural e os benefícios proporcionados pela prática regular do exercício físico para a prevenção de quedas de idosos. Como resultado, é apresentado um modelo ilustrativo sobre a sequência de estratégias utilizadas por idosos para reestabelecer a posição ereta em diferentes fases de perturbação postural. Conclui-se que o baixo desempenho da atenção, da memória e de funções executivas eleva a instabilidade postural e reduz a velocidade da marcha, aumentando o risco de quedas. Nesse contexto, a prática regular de exercícios físicos é capaz de reduzir significativamente a taxa de queda de idosos. Aconselham-se a prática de exercícios programados, que agreguem tarefas cognitivas com grau de desafio da instabilidade de moderado a alto, e a prática semanal de duas a três horas. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: acidentes por quedas; equilíbrio postural; cognição; envelhecimento.
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