The number of oocytes recovered from Bos taurus indicus females subjected to ovum pick-up averaged two to four times greater compared to Bos taurus taurus females. The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that this difference in oocyte yield was due to more preantral follicles in the ovaries of Bos indicus females. Ovaries (n = 64) from Nelore (Bos indicus) fetuses (n = 10), heifers (n = 12), and cows (n = 10), and Aberdeen Angus (Bos taurus) fetuses (n = 10), heifers (n = 12), and cows (n = 10) were cut longitudinally into halves, fixed, and processed for histological evaluation. The number of preantral follicles was estimated by counting them in each histological section, using the oocyte nucleus as a marker and employing a correction factor. The average number of preantral follicles in the ovaries of Bos indicus vs Bos taurus was (mean ± SD) 143,929 ± 64,028 vs 285,155 ± 325,195 for fetuses, 76,851 ± 78,605 vs 109,673 ± 86,078 for heifers, and 39,438 ± 31,017 vs 89,577 ± 86,315 for cows (P > 0.05). The number of preantral follicles varied greatly among individual animals within the same category, as well as between breeds. In conclusion, we inferred that the higher oocyte yield from Bos indicus females was not due to a greater ovarian reserve of preantral follicles. Therefore, mechanisms controlling follicle development after the preantral stage likely accounted for differences between Bos indicus and Bos taurus females in number of oocytes retrieved at ovum pick-up.
RESUMOAmostras de leite foram coletadas de tanques de expansão (n = 69) e das vacas individualmente (n = 3517), em propriedades com sistema de produção especializado (ES, n = 3), semiespecializado (SE, n = 5) e não especializado (NE, n = 7). A composição, contagem de células somáticas (CCS) e teor de nitrogênio ureico (NU) foram avaliados nos diferentes sistemas e estações do ano. Os dados foram comparados aos parâmetros da Instrução Normativa 51/2002 (IN51) para a região Sul do Brasil, de maio/2009 a junho/2010. Analisando os três sistemas de produção, 42% (n = 29/69) das amostras de leite dos tanques de expansão e 11% (n = 375/3517) das individuais atenderam a IN51. Amostras de leite de tanque do sistema ES 70% (n = 14/20), SE 39% (n = 9/23) e NE 23% (n = 6/26) atenderam os critérios da IN51. Amostras de leite individuais apresentaram menor percentual com parâmetros mínimos da IN51 comparada ao tanque. O leite de vacas sadias dilui a CCS de vacas doentes, indicando que a CCS do tanque não é um indicador confiável para qualidade do leite. Os teores médios de gordura, proteína e sólidos totais em amostras de tanque foram semelhantes entre os sistemas de produção. A lactose e NU nas amostras do tanque foram similares entre as estações do ano. Em contraste, a CCS do tanque e individual não alcançaram os parâmetros da IN51. O teor médio de NU foi maior (P < 0,001) nas amostras de leite de tanque e individual do sistema especializado. A análise de amostras de leite de cada vaca permitiu melhoria nutricional do rebanho especializado. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: CCS, tanque de expansão, composição do leite. ABSTRACT MILK QUALITY IN SAMPLES FROM INDIVIDUAL DAIRY COWS AND MILK TANKS.Bovine milk samples were collected from milk tanks (n = 69) and from individual cows (n = 3,517) on specialized (S, n = 3), partially specialized (PS, n = 5) and nonspecialized (NS, n = 7) production systems. Compositions, somatic cell count (SCC) and urea nitrogen content were analyzed for the different production systems and all the four seasons. Data were compared to the ranges allowed by the Federal Normative Instruction 51/2002 (IN51) for South Brazil from May 2009 to June 2010. Forty-two percent (n = 29/69) of all milk samples obtained from tanks and 11% of the individual samples in the three production systems met IN51 standards. Of the collected tank samples, 70% (n = 14/20), 39% (n = 9/23) and 23% (n = 6/26) of the S, PS and NS systems, respectively, met IN51 criteria. These data indicate that evaluation of individual samples yields a lower percent of conformity with IN51 standards than tank samples. This implies that the milk from healthy cows may dilute the higher SCC of diseased cows, suggesting that tank samples are not accurate for a confident milk quality indicator. The fat, protein and total solids content in the tank samples were similar among the three production systems. Average lactose and urea nitrogen content in tank samples were similar between seasons. In contrast, the average SCC was above the IN51 standard in the tank and indiv...
The objective was to determine the effects of exogenous prostaglandin F(2α) (PGF), with or without progesterone treatment, on first ovulation in prepubertal heifers. We tested the hypothesis that PGF has a luteolysis-independent ovulatory effect in cattle. Crossbred Angus heifers (12 to 14 mo old, 250 kg body weight, and an average body condition score of 3 out of 5) were examined by transrectal ultrasonography on two occasions, 11 days apart. Heifers in which a CL was not detected at either examination were considered prepubertal. Heifers were assigned randomly to three experimental groups: (1) PG group (N = 14); heifers were treated with a PGF analog (500 μg cloprostenol im) 5 days after the emergence of a spontaneous (i.e., naturally occurring, noninduced) follicular wave; (2) PPG group (N = 12); heifers were given an intravaginal progesterone-releasing insert (CIDR; Pfizer Animal Health, Montreal, QC, Canada), and a follicular wave was induced with 50 mg of progesterone + 2 mg of estradiol benzoate im, and a PGF analog was given at the time of CIDR removal, on day 5 of the follicular wave (on average, 8.6 ± 0.5 days after CIDR insertion); and (3) control group heifers were given no treatment (N = 14). Heifers were examined daily by transrectal ultrasonography from the start of the experiment to confirmation that ovulation had occurred, or to 5 days after PGF injection (PG and PPG groups) or until dominant follicles of the next follicular wave reached 8 mm (control group). The percentage of heifers that ovulated within 10 days after wave emergence was higher in PPG (10/12; 83.3%) and PG (11/14; 78.5%) groups than in control (1/14; 7.1%; P < 0.0001). Ovulations occurred 69.6 ± 6 h and 93.8 ± 5 h after PGF treatment in PPG and in PG groups, respectively, whereas only one heifer in the control group ovulated 96 h after day 5 of follicular wave (P = 0.13). In summary, PGF treatment was associated with ovulation in prepubertal heifers whether or not exogenous progesterone was used as a pretreatment. The hypothesis that PGF will induce ovulation by a luteolysis-independent mechanism was supported.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a PGF2α-analogue (PGF) on ovulation and pregnancy rates after timed artificial insemination (TAI) in cattle. In experiment 1, crossbred dual-purpose heifers, in a crossover design (3 × 3), were given an intravaginal progesterone-releasing insert (controlled internal drug release [CIDR]) plus 1 mg estradiol benzoate (EB) intramuscularly (im) and 250 μg of a PGF-analogue im on Day 0. The CIDR inserts were removed 5 days after follicular wave emergence, and the heifers were randomly divided into three treatment groups to receive the following treatments: (1) 1 mg of EB im (EB group, n = 13); (2) 500 μg of PGF im (PG group, n = 13); or (3) saline (control group, n = 13), 24 hours after CIDR removal. Ovulation occurred earlier in EB (69.81 ± 3.23 hours) and PG groups (73.09 ± 3.23 hours) compared with control (83.07 ± 4.6 hours; P = 0.01) after CIDR removal. In experiment 2, pubertal beef heifers (n = 444), 12 to 14 months of age were used. On Day 0, the heifers were given a CIDR insert plus 2 mg EB im. On Day 9, the CIDR was removed and the heifers were given 500 μg of PGF im. Heifers were randomly assigned into one of three treatment groups: (1) 1 mg of EB (EB group; n = 145); (2) 500 μg of PGF (PG group; n = 149), both 24 hours after CIDR removal; or (3) 600 μg of estradiol cypionate (ECP group; n = 150) at CIDR removal. Timed artificial insemination occurred 48 hours after CIDR removal in the ECP group and 54 hours in the PG and EB groups. The percentage of heifers ovulating was higher in the PG group compared with the other groups (P = 0.08). However, the pregnancy rates did not differ among groups (47.6%, 45%, and 46.6%, for EB, PG, and ECP, respectively; P = 0.9). In experiment 3, 224 lactating beef cows, 40 to 50 days postpartum with 2.5 to 3.5 of body condition score were treated similarly as described in experiment 2, except for the ECP group, which was excluded. The treatments were as follows: 1 mg EB (EB group; n = 117) or 500 μg PGF (PG group; n = 107), 24 hours after CIDR removal. The calves were temporarily separated from their dams from Days 9 to 11. No difference was detected on the pregnancy rate between the EB and PG groups (58.1% vs. 47.6%, respectively; P = 0.11). Taken together, the combined results suggested that PGF2α could be successfully used to induce and synchronize ovulation in cattle undergoing TAI, with similar pregnancy rates when compared with other ovulatory stimuli (ECP and EB).
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of fetal calf serum (FCS) on the quality of in vitro produced bovine embryos. Cumulus oocyte-complexes (COCs, n = 2 449) recovered by ovum pick-up from Bos taurus indicus donors were randomly assigned to experimental groups. Sperm selected by Percoll gradient was used for in vitro fertilization (insemination = Day 0). In Experiment 1 (n = 1 745 COCs), zygotes were cultured in vitro in Synthetic Oviduct Fluid + 4 mg/mL of bovine serum albumin (BSA), or BSA + 2% FCS (BSA+FCS). In Experiment 2 (n = 704 COCs), the COCs were cultured in SOF + BSA, BSA + 2% FCS, or BSA + 2% FCS on D4 (BSA + FCSD4). In Experiment 1, blastocyst yield (51%) and Quality I blastocysts (41%) at Day 7 were higher (P < 0.05) in the BSA + FCS treatment than in BSA (42 and 30%, respectively). In Experiment 2, blastocyst yield was higher (P < 0.05) in the BSA+FCS (47%) treatment. Quality I blastocyst yield was higher (P < 0.05) for BSA + FCS (34%) and BSA+FCSD4 (32%) compared to the BSA treatment (20%). A total of 820 embryos were transferred, with no significant differences among groups in pregnancy rates. In conclusion, in vitro culture in SOFaaci + BSA + FCS enhanced blastocyst yield and Quality I blastocysts; adding FCS to the culture medium increased the efficiency of IVP of bovine embryos.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite Inc. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers