The present study investigated knowledge, misconceptions, and lack of information about dyslexia among pre-service (PST) and in-service (IST) Spanish-speaking teachers in Spain and Peru. Two hundred and forty-six pre-service teachers and 267 in-service teachers completed the Knowledge and Beliefs about Developmental Dyslexia Scale (KBDDS). In-service teachers scored significantly higher on the total scale, and on the symptoms/diagnosis and general information subscales, than pre-service teachers. The percentages for misconceptions and lack of information ("do not know responses") were higher for PSTs than for ISTs on the general information subscale, the symptoms/diagnosis subscale, and the treatment subscale. Analyses of individual items were conducted to differentiate concepts that teachers did not know from misconceptions. In-service teacher self-efficacy, years of teaching experience, post-graduate training in dyslexia, and prior exposure to a child with dyslexia were positively related to knowledge about dyslexia. Implications for pre-service teacher training and professional development are discussed.
BackgroundResearch during 2020 has been rapidly attending to the impact of COVID-19 on various dimensions of wellbeing (e.g., physical, psychological, lifestyle and routines) on adults and children around the world. However, less attention has focused on the psychoeducational impact on children and their families. To our knowledge, no currently available studies have looked specifically at the impact of COVID-19 on students with dyslexia and their families. Research on this topic is needed to offer greater support for this population of students and their families.ObjectiveThe main objective of this paper is to examine the psychoeducational impact of the required COVID-19 quarantine in Spain among children with dyslexia and their families.MethodA sample of 32 children with dyslexia and their mothers participated in this study.MeasuresChildren and adolescents with dyslexia and their mother completed several measures before the required national quarantine in Spain and again during the quarantine. Children completed measures of depression, state anxiety, reading activity, and reading motivation. Mothers provided demographic information and completed measures related to students’ emotional and behavioral difficulties as well as parenting stress, parental distress, and a questionnaire about educational problems during quarantine.ResultsMajor findings showed that during quarantine, children with dyslexia had increased levels of depression and anxiety symptoms, and parents perceived their children as having more emotional symptoms, hyperactivity-inattention, and conduct problems. During quarantine, children and adolescents with dyslexia also showed less reading activity and less reading motivation. Parents also reported significantly more stress, during quarantine compared to pre-quarantine conditions. Some demographic and psychological variables predicted children’s state anxiety as well parental stress. The questionnaire related to impacts of quarantine also revealed several important findings. For example, nearly all parents of children with dyslexia reported (a) difficulties in establishing study routines, (b) that the quarantine negatively affected their child’s learning, and (c) that they did not receive sufficient help from teachers on how to support their child’s learning. Additionally, the vast majority of the parents were very worried about the child’s learning and school success, the child’s motivation and interest in reading, the child’s peer relations, and the professional skills of the child’s teacher.ConclusionThis study offers a preliminary investigation into this topic and elucidates several psychoeducational challenges that children with dyslexia and their families have experienced during the quarantine in Spain. Study findings highlight the need to provide immediate support for children with dyslexia and emphasizes the importance of developing prevention programs to mitigate any future negative impacts of COVID-19 on children with dyslexia and their parents.
As the final paper within this special issue on Internationalization in School and Educational Psychology, this paper documents broad perspectives about internationalization from multiple school and educational psychologists who have worked in various contexts (e.g., in different professional roles and geographic locations). Based upon three core questions that contributors responded to, the paper systematically integrates all perspectives according to two primary categories: Strengths or Positive Indicators and Considerations, Concerns, and Needs. The former category is discussed with respect to three themes that emerged from contributors’ responses: (1) internationally focused scholarship, (2) presence and work of international organizations, and (3) study abroad, exchange, and international collaboration. The category pertaining to concerns and needs was also thematically summarized according to three topics: (1) power, paternalism, and neoliberalism, (2) paucity of critical dialogue and research, and (3) linguistic and financial barriers to internationalization. From the shared perspectives, concluding remarks are presented in the context of how the discipline can continue discourse and activities that, through internationalization, help to offer more equitable opportunities for professionals in the field and the communities they work to support.
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