a b s t r a c tThe Kalman conjecture is known to be true for third-order continuous-time systems. We show that it is false in general for second-order discrete-time systems by construction of counterexamples with stable periodic solutions. We discuss a class of second-order discrete-time systems for which it is true provided the nonlinearity is odd, but false in general. This has strong implications for the analysis of saturated systems.
: This paper presents a formal description and analysis of an SIR (involving susceptible- infectious-recovered subpopulations) epidemic model in a patchy environment with vaccination controls being constant and proportional to the susceptible subpopulations. The patchy environment is due to the fact that there is a partial interchange of all the subpopulations considered in the model between the various patches what is modelled through the so-called travel matrices. It is assumed that the vaccination controls are administered at each community health centre of a particular patch while either the total information or a partial information of the total subpopulations, including the interchanging ones, is shared by all the set of health centres of the whole environment under study. In the case that not all the information of the subpopulations distributions at other patches are known by the health centre of each particular patch, the feedback vaccination rule would have a decentralized nature. The paper investigates the existence, allocation (depending on the vaccination control gains) and uniqueness of the disease-free equilibrium point as well as the existence of at least a stable endemic equilibrium point. Such a point coincides with the disease-free equilibrium point if the reproduction number is unity. The stability and instability of the disease-free equilibrium point are ensured under the values of the disease reproduction number guaranteeing, respectively, the un-attainability (the reproduction number being less than unity) and stability (the reproduction number being more than unity) of the endemic equilibrium point. The whole set of the potential endemic equilibrium points is characterized and a particular case is also described related to its uniqueness in the case when the patchy model reduces to a unique patch. Vaccination control laws including feedback are proposed which can take into account shared information between the various patches. It is not assumed that there are in the most general case, symmetry-type constrains on the population fluxes between the various patches or in the associated control gains parameterizations.
In this paper, we initiate the notion of Ćirić type rational graphic Υ , Λ -contraction pair mappings and provide some new related common fixed point results on partial b-metric spaces endowed with a directed graph G. We also give examples to illustrate our main results. Moreover, we present some applications on electric circuit equations and fractional differential equations.
A new discrete SEIADR epidemic model is built based on previous continuous models. The model considers two extra subpopulation, namely, asymptomatic and lying corpses on the usual SEIR models. It can be of potential interest for diseases where infected corpses are infectious like, for instance, Ebola. The model includes two types of vaccinations, a constant one and another proportional to the susceptible subpopulation, as well as a treatment control applied to the infected subpopulation. We study the positivity of the controlled model and the stability of the equilibrium points. Simulations are made in order to provide allocation and examples to the different possible conditions. The equilibrium point with no infection and its stability is related, via the reproduction number values, to the reachability of the endemic equilibrium point.
This paper investigates a susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered (SEIR) epidemic model with demography under two vaccination effort strategies. Firstly, the model is investigated under vaccination of newborns, which is fact in a direct action on the recruitment level of the model. Secondly, it is investigated under a periodic impulsive vaccination on the susceptible in the sense that the vaccination impulses are concentrated in practice in very short time intervals around a set of impulsive time instants subject to constant inter-vaccination periods. Both strategies can be adapted, if desired, to the time-varying levels of susceptible in the sense that the control efforts be increased as those susceptible levels increase. The model is discussed in terms of suitable properties like the positivity of the solutions, the existence and allocation of equilibrium points, and stability concerns related to the values of the basic reproduction number. It is proven that the basic reproduction number lies below unity, so that the disease-free equilibrium point is asymptotically stable for larger values of the disease transmission rates under vaccination controls compared to the case of absence of vaccination. It is also proven that the endemic equilibrium point is not reachable if the disease-free one is stable and that the disease-free equilibrium point is unstable if the reproduction number exceeds unity while the endemic equilibrium point is stable. Several numerical results are investigated for both vaccination rules with the option of adapting through ime the corresponding efforts to the levels of susceptibility. Such simulation examples are performed under parameterizations related to the current SARS-COVID 19 pandemic.
This paper firstly studies an SIR (susceptible-infectious-recovered) epidemic model without demography and with no disease mortality under both total and under partial quarantine of the susceptible subpopulation or of both the susceptible and the infectious ones in order to satisfy the hospital availability requirements on bed disposal and other necessary treatment means for the seriously infectious subpopulations. The seriously infectious individuals are assumed to be a part of the total infectious being described by a time-varying proportional function. A time-varying upper-bound of those seriously infected individuals has to be satisfied as objective by either a total confinement or partial quarantine intervention of the susceptible subpopulation. Afterwards, a new extended SEIR (susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered) epidemic model, which is referred to as an SEIAR (susceptible-exposed-symptomatic infectious-asymptomatic infectious-recovered) epidemic model with demography and disease mortality is given and focused on so as to extend the above developed ideas on the SIR model. A proportionally gain in the model parameterization is assumed to distribute the transition from the exposed to the infectious into the two infectious individuals (namely, symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals). Such a model is evaluated under total or partial quarantines of all or of some of the subpopulations which have the effect of decreasing the number of contagions. Simulated numerical examples are also discussed related to model parameterizations of usefulness related to the current COVID-19 pandemic outbreaks.
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