A theory for the nonlocal shear stress correlations in supercooled liquids is derived from first principles. It captures the crossover from viscous to elastic dynamics at an idealized liquid to glass transition and explains the emergence of long-ranged stress correlations in glass, as expected from classical continuum elasticity. The long-ranged stress correlations can be traced to the coupling of shear stress to transverse momentum, which is ignored in the classic Maxwell model. To rescue this widely used model, we suggest a generalization in terms of a single relaxation time τ for the fast degrees of freedom only. This generalized Maxwell model implies a divergent correlation length ξ∝τ as well as dynamic critical scaling and correctly accounts for the far-field stress correlations. It can be rephrased in terms of generalized hydrodynamic equations, which naturally couple stress and momentum and furthermore allow us to connect to fluidity and elastoplastic models.
We develop a generalized hydrodynamic theory, which can account for the build-up of long-ranged and long-lived shear stress correlations in supercooled liquids as the glass transition is approached. Our theory is based on the decomposition of tensorial stress relaxation into fast microscopic processes and slow dynamics due to conservation laws. In the fluid, anisotropic shear stress correlations arise from the tensorial nature of stress. By approximating the fast microscopic processes by a single relaxation time in the spirit of Maxwell, we find viscoelastic precursors of the Eshelby-type correlations familiar in an elastic medium. The spatial extent of shear stress fluctuations is characterized by a correlation length which grows like the viscosity or time scale ∼, whose divergence signals the glass transition. In the solid, the correlation length is infinite and stress correlations decay algebraically as in d dimensions.
Linear α,ω-dinitriles are important precursors for the polymer industry. Most prominently, adiponitrile is produced on an annual scale of ca. 1 million tons. However, a drawback of today’s dominating process is the need for large amounts of highly toxic hydrogen cyanide. In this contribution, an alternative approach towards such linear dinitriles is presented based on dehydration of readily available α,ω-dialdoximes at ambient conditions by means of aldoxime dehydratases. In contrast to existing production routes this biocatalytic route enables a highly regio- and chemoselective approach towards dinitriles without the use of hydrogen cyanide or harsh reaction conditions. In addition, a selective synthesis of adiponitrile with substrate loadings of up to 100 g/L and high yields of up to 80% was achieved. Furthermore, a lab scale process on liter scale leading to > 99% conversion at 50 g/L underlines the potential and robustness of this method for technical applicability.
The presented continuous flow calorimeter enables process understanding of novel flow syntheses and the use of highly reactive compounds. Adaptation of the calorimeter is possible via 3D printing and due to its modular and expandable design.
An integrated process including continuous-flow syntheses directly coupled to product isolation via continuous crystallization is presented. For the synthesis part, Ce 0.495 Sn 0.495 Pd 0.01 O 2-δ was used as heterogeneous catalyst in a custom-made packed-bed reactor (the so-called "Plug and Play" reactor) for continuous Suzuki-Miyaura crosscouplings of various para-and ortho-substituted bromoarenes with phenylboronic acid using environmentally friendly aqueous ethanolic mixtures as reaction solvents. The reactions were stable for up to 30 h without any detectable catalyst deactivation. The desired biaryl products were obtained in gram scale with good to excellent yields and high selectivity. For three methyl-, ketyl-, and nitrile-functionalized biphenyl products, isolation was done using water as antisolvent in an integrated crystallization process as continuous downstream protocol. The desired products could be isolated with high purity and with yields of up to 95% for the overall process.
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