During meiosis, DNA double‐strand breaks undergo interhomolog repair to yield crossovers between homologous chromosomes. To investigate how interhomolog sequence polymorphism affects crossovers, we sequenced multiple recombinant populations of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana . Crossovers were elevated in the diverse pericentromeric regions, showing a local preference for polymorphic regions. We provide evidence that crossover association with elevated diversity is mediated via the Class I crossover formation pathway, although very high levels of diversity suppress crossovers. Interhomolog polymorphism causes mismatches in recombining molecules, which can be detected by MutS homolog (MSH) mismatch repair protein heterodimers. Therefore, we mapped crossovers in a msh2 mutant, defective in mismatch recognition, using multiple hybrid backgrounds. Although total crossover numbers were unchanged in msh2 mutants, recombination was remodelled from the diverse pericentromeres towards the less‐polymorphic sub‐telomeric regions. Juxtaposition of megabase heterozygous and homozygous regions causes crossover remodelling towards the heterozygous regions in wild type Arabidopsis , but not in msh2 mutants. Immunostaining showed that MSH 2 protein accumulates on meiotic chromosomes during prophase I, consistent with MSH2 regulating meiotic recombination. Our results reveal a pro‐crossover role for MSH 2 in regions of higher sequence diversity in A. thaliana .
The frequency and distribution of meiotic crossovers are tightly controlled; however, variation in this process can be observed both within and between species. Using crosses of two natural Arabidopsis thaliana accessions, Col and Ler, we mapped a crossover modifier locus to semidominant polymorphisms in SUPPRESSOR OF NPR1-1 INDUCIBLE 1 (SNI1), which encodes a component of the SMC5/6 complex. The sni1 mutant exhibits a modified pattern of recombination across the genome with crossovers elevated in chromosome distal regions but reduced in pericentromeres. Mutations in SNI1 result in reduced crossover interference and can partially restore the fertility of a Class I crossover pathway mutant, which suggests that the protein affects noninterfering crossover repair. Therefore, we tested genetic interactions between SNI1 and both RECQ4 and FANCM DNA helicases, which showed that additional Class II crossovers observed in the sni1 mutant are FANCM independent. Furthermore, genetic analysis of other SMC5/6 mutants confirms the observations of crossover redistribution made for SNI1. The study reveals the importance of the SMC5/6 complex in ensuring the proper progress of meiotic recombination in plants.
Nucleosomal acetyltransferase of H4 (NuA4) is an essential transcriptional coactivator in eukaryotes, but remains poorly characterized in plants. Here, we describe Arabidopsis homologs of the NuA4 scaffold proteins Enhancer of Polycomb-Like 1 (AtEPL1) and Esa1-Associated Factor 1 (AtEAF1). Loss of AtEAF1 results in inhibition of growth and chloroplast development. These effects are stronger in the Atepl1 mutant and are further enhanced by loss of Golden2-Like (GLK) transcription factors, suggesting that NuA4 activates nuclear plastid genes alongside GLK. We demonstrate that AtEPL1 is necessary for nucleosomal acetylation of histones H4 and H2A.Z by NuA4 in vitro. These chromatin marks are diminished genome-wide in Atepl1, while another active chromatin mark, H3K9 acetylation (H3K9ac), is locally enhanced. Expression of many chloroplast-related genes depends on NuA4, as they are downregulated with loss of H4ac and H2A.Zac. Finally, we demonstrate that NuA4 promotes H2A.Z deposition and by doing so prevents spurious activation of stress response genes.
In hybrid organisms, genetically divergent homologous chromosomes pair and recombine during meiosis; however, the effect of specific types of polymorphisms on crossover is poorly understood. Here, to analyze this in Arabidopsis, we develop the seed-typing method that enables the massively parallel fine-mapping of crossovers by sequencing. We show that structural variants, observed in one of the generated intervals, do not change crossover frequency unless they are located directly within crossover hotspots. Both natural and Cas9-induced deletions result in lower hotspot activity but are not compensated by increases in immediately adjacent hotspots. To examine the effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms on crossover formation, we analyze hotspot activity in mismatch detection-deficient msh2 mutants. Surprisingly, polymorphic hotspots show reduced activity in msh2. In lines where only the hotspot-containing interval is heterozygous, crossover numbers increase above those in the inbred (homozygous). We conclude that MSH2 shapes crossover distribution by stimulating hotspot activity at polymorphic regions.
NuA4, an essential histone acetyltransferase complex, is required for efficient transcription in eukaryotes. Using genome editing, genomic approaches and biochemical assays, we characterized plant homologues of two key components of this complex, EPL1 and EAF1 in Arabidopsis thaliana. Surprisingly, we found that loss of AtEPL1, which is necessary for enzymatic activity of NuA4, is not lethal. Contrary to yeast, mutants lacking AtEAF1, responsible for complex targeting, display severe pleiotropic phenotype which copies that of Atepl1. Atepl1 and Ateaf1 mutants grow slowly, contain reduced chlorophyll levels and small chloroplasts. We provide evidence that these alterations are not caused by incapacitation of GLK transcription factors, the major regulators of chloroplast development. Using ChIP-seq we show that H4 acetylation levels are dramatically reduced in the chromatin of the Atepl1 mutant, while H3 acetylation remains mostly unchanged. We use our data to define NuA4-dependent genes and show that chloroplast-related genes are significantly overrepresented in this group, consistent with the pale-green phenotypes of the mutants. We propose that NuA4 was adopted in plants to control nuclear-encoded photosynthesis genes.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite Inc. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers