Anabolic androgen steroids (AASs) are drugs synthesized from testosterone. Their anabolic action is mainly due to increased synthesis and reduced degradation of muscle proteins. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of swimming training associated to nandrolonedecanoate treatment on the blood pressure, the myocardial dimensions, vascular reactivity. Forty Wistar male rats, aged 60 days, were divided into 4 groups (n = 10): sedentary (SN), sedentary treated (ST), trained (TN) and trained treated (TT). TN and TT animals performed a swimming training during 12 weeks and ST and TT animals received weekly nandrolonedecanoate (15mg/kg). The heart and testicles were removed and weighted. The left ventricular diameter (LVD) and left ventricular wall thickness (LVWT) had been measured with an electronic pachymeter. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was weekly measured, while the mesenteric arteries vascular reactivity was studied for its response to noradrenaline. There were no alterations in the heart weight, but the LVD increased (p < 0.05) in TN rats, while the LVWT increased (p < 0.05) in ST and TT rats, both in relation to SN. Testicle weight decreased (p < 0.05) in the ST and TT animals in relation to SN. There was no alteration in blood pressure, neither in vascular reactivity. It was concluded that swimming training increased the left ventricular diameter, while nandrolonedecanoate treatment increased mainly the left ventricular wall thickness, suggesting concentric hypertrophy.
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