Rab27, a small GTPase, is generally recognized as an important regulator of secretion that interacts with Rab27-specific effectors to regulate events in a wide variety of cells, including endocrine and exocrine cells. However, the mechanisms governing the spatio-temporal regulation of GTPase activity of Rab27 are not firmly established, and no GTPase-activating protein (GAP) specific for Rab27 has been identified in secretory cells. We previously showed that expression of EPI64, a Tre-2/Bub2/ Cdc16 (TBC)-domain-containing protein, in melanocytes inactivates endogenous Rab27A on melanosomes (Itoh, T., and Fukuda, M. (2006) J. Biol. Chem. 281, 31823-31831), but the EPI64 role in secretory cells has never been investigated. In this study, we investigated the effect of EPI64 on Rab27 in isoproterenol (IPR)-stimulated amylase release from rat parotid acinar cells. Subcellular fractionation and immunohistochemical analyses indicated that EPI64 was enriched on the apical plasma membrane of parotid acinar cells. We found that an antibody against the TBC/Rab-GAP domain of EPI64 inhibited the reduction in levels of the endogenous GTP-Rab27 in streptolysin-O-permeabilized parotid acinar cells and suppressed amylase release in a dose-dependent manner. We also found that the levels of EPI64 mRNA and EPI64 protein increased after IPR stimulation, and that treatment with actinomycin D or antisense-EPI64 oligonucleotides suppressed the increase of EPI64 mRNA/EPI64 protein and the amount of amylase released. Our findings indicated that EPI64 acted as a physiological Rab27-GAP that enhanced GTPase activity of Rab27 in response to IPR stimulation, and that this activity is required for IPR-induced amylase release.Small GTPase Rabs are believed to play important roles in intracellular membrane trafficking (reviewed in Refs. 1-4). More than 60 distinct Rab isoforms have been identified in humans and mice, and these proteins form a large subfamily of the small GTPase superfamily (5-7). Rab activity is regulated by the GDP/GTP cycle (1-4, 8), with GTP-Rab and GDP-Rab representing active and inactive forms, respectively. Distinct individual Rabs interact with a specific effector/regulator, and these complexes regulate different steps of membrane trafficking in cells, and they function as either an accelerator or a brake (9, 10). GTP bound to a particular Rab is hydrolyzed by intrinsic GTPase activity, and this activity is enhanced by a specific GTPase-activating protein (GAP) 3 (11). The TBC (Tre-2/Bub2/Cdc16) domain is a conserved protein motif with ϳ200 amino acids and is known to be present in a variety of molecules in eukaryotic organisms (12). Because the TBC domain of yeast, Gyps (GAP for Ypt proteins), has been shown to function as a GAP domain for small GTPase Ypt/Rab, TBC domain-containing proteins (referred to as TBC proteins hereafter) in other species are also expected to function as specific Rab-GAPs. Humans and mice each have more than 40 TBC proteins, and substantial evidence has accumulated recently indicating that some...
This study aimed to evaluate the impact of three types of block bone substitute material on bone formation and graft resorption in vivo. Standardized bone defects (n = 4 defects/animal) were created in the calvaria of nine dogs. Block bone substitutes made of deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM), beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and a mixture alpha-TCP and hydroxyapatite (α-TCP/HA) were inserted into the bone defects. A fourth defect was left untreated (empty). All sites were covered with a collagenous membrane. Block biopsies were harvested at 3, 6 and 12 months post-implantation and analyzed by micro-CT and histology. Biomaterial absorption was minimal and incorporation within the defect margin was good for all biomaterials. However, β-TCP demonstrated a relatively greater volume of new bone formation and less residual material volume when compared with DBBM and α-TCP/HA. Conversely, α-TCP/HA showed higher osteoconductive potential and a greater new bone area compared with the other two biomaterials. The block bone substitutes used in the present in vivo study showed advantageous in terms of maintenance of their original form in bony defect. However, the positive impact of all biomaterials on new bone formation and replacement of bone was minor even at 12 months. These findings indicate that block bone substitutes are not well suited to vertical bone augmentation. Further investigations are required to improve the insufficient new bone volume for promising clinical results.
The aim of this study was to assess hard and soft tissue responses using three dental implants made of different materials. Implants made of titanium (Ti), yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (Y-TZP) and ceria partially stabilized zirconia/alumina nanocomposite (Ce-TZP/Al2O3) were used in a dog model. Five male beagles were sacrificed at three months after implantation, and harvested mandible were observed and analyzed. Histological observations were similar in all groups. There were no significant differences in any histomorphometric parameters. Our results suggested the possibility of Ce-TZP/Al2O3 as a dental implant material, similar to Ti and Y-TZP.
In mouse parotid glands, we found expression of skeletal muscle actin (actin-α1) protein and mRNA. We isolated myoepithelial cells from the mouse parotid glands and investigated their actin-α1 expression because smooth muscle actin (actin-α2) has been used as a marker for myoepithelial cells. We used actin-α1 expression to identify pathological changes in diabetic non-obese diabetic (NOD; NOD/ShiJcl) mice—a mouse model for Sjögren's syndrome—and found myoepithelial cells to be decreased or atrophied in the diabetic state.
Antiseptic solutions are commonly utilized to treat local infection in the oral and maxillofacial region. However, surrounding vital bone is also exposed to antiseptic agents during irrigation and may have a potential negative impact on bone survival. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the effect of rinsing time with various antiseptic solutions on bone cell viability, as well as their subsequent release of growth factors important for bone regeneration. The bone samples collected from porcine mandible were rinsed in the following commonly utilized antiseptic solutions; povidone-iodine (0.5%), chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX, 0.2%), hydrogen peroxide (1%), and sodium hypochlorite (0.25%) for 1, 5, 10, 20, 30, or 60 minutes and assessed for cell viability and release of growth factors including vascular endothelial growth factor, transforming growth factor beta 1, bone morphogenetic protein 2, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand, and interleukin-1 beta by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. It was found in all the tested groups that the long exposure of any of the tested antiseptic solutions drastically promoted higher cell death. Sodium hypochlorite demonstrated the significantly highest cell death and at all time points. Interestingly, bone cell viability was highest in the CHX group post short-term rinsing of 1, 5, or 10 minutes when compared with the other 4 tested groups. A similar trend was also observed in subsequent growth factor release. The present study demonstrated that of the 4 tested antiseptic solutions, short-term CHX rinsing (ideally within 1 minute) favored bone cell viability and growth factor release. Clinical protocols should be adapted accordingly.
The objective of the present study was to assess hard and soft tissue around dental implants made of three different materials with microgrooves on the collar surface. Microgrooved implants were inserted in the mandibles of five male beagles. Implants were made of three kinds of material; titanium (Ti), yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (Y-TZP) and ceria partially stabilized zirconia/alumina nanocomposite (Ce-TZP/AlO). The animals were euthanatized at three months after implantation, and harvested tissue was analyzed by means of histology. All kinds of implant were osseointegrated, and there were no significant differences in any histomorphometric parameters among the three groups of microgrooved implants made of different materials. Within the limitations of this study, implants with microgrooves integrated into the surrounding bone tissue, without statistically significant differences among the three tested materials, Ti, Y-TZP, and Ce-TZP/AlO.
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