This study was performed to investigate the protective and therapeutic effects of resveratrol (RES) against CdCl2-induced toxicity in rat testes. Seven experimental groups of adult male rats were formulated as follows: A) controls+NS, B) control+vehicle (saline solution of hydroxypropyl cyclodextrin), C) RES treated, D) CdCl2+NS, E) CdCl2+vehicle, F) RES followed by CdCl2 and M) CdCl2 followed by RES. At the end of the protocol, serum levels of FSH, LH and testosterone were measured in all groups, and testicular levels of TBARS and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were measured. Epididymal semen analysis was performed, and testicular expression of Bcl-2, p53 and Bax was assessed by RT-PCR. Also, histopathological changes of the testes were examined microscopically. Administration of RES before or after cadmium chloride in rats improved semen parameters including count, motility, daily sperm production and morphology, increased serum concentrations of gonadotropins and testosterone, decreased testicular lipid peroxidation and increased SOD activity. RES not only attenuated cadmium chloride-induced testicular histopathology but was also able to protect against the onset of cadmium chloride testicular toxicity. Cadmium chloride downregulated the anti-apoptotic gene Bcl2 and upregulated the expression of pro-apoptotic genes p53 and Bax. Resveratrol protected against and partially reversed cadmium chloride testicular toxicity via upregulation of Bcl2 and downregulation of p53 and Bax gene expression. The antioxidant activity of RES protects against cadmium chloride testicular toxicity and partially reverses its effect via upregulation of BCl2 and downregulation of p53 and Bax expression.
The molecular mechanisms through which ghrelin exerts its cardioprotective effects during cardiac remodeling post-myocardial infarction (MI) are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the cardioprotection mechanisms are mediated by modulation of JAK/STAT signaling and what triggers this modulation. Rats were divided into six groups (n = 12/group): control, sham, sham + ghrelin (100 µg/kg, s.c., daily, starting 1 day post-MI), MI, MI+ ghrelin, and MI+ ghrelin+ AG490, a potent JAK2 inhibitor (5 mg/kg, i.p., daily). All treatments were administered for 3 weeks. Administration of ghrelin to MI rats improved left ventricle (LV) architecture and restored cardiac contraction. In remote non-infarcted areas of MI rats, ghrelin reduced cardiac inflammation and lipid peroxidation and enhanced antioxidant enzymatic activity. In addition, independent of the growth factor/insulin growth factor-1 (GF/IGF-1) axis, ghrelin significantly increased the phosphorylation of JAK2 and Tyr702 and Ser727 residues of STAT3 and inhibited the phosphorylation of JAK1 and Tyr701 and Ser727 residues of STAT1, simultaneously increasing the expression of BCL-2 and decreasing in the expression of BAX, cleaved CASP3, and FAS. This effect coincided with decreased expression of SOCS3. All these beneficial effects of ghrelin, except its inhibitory action on IL-6 expression, were partially and significantly abolished by the co-administration of AG490. In conclusion, the cardioprotective effect of ghrelin against MI-induced LV injury is exerted via activation of JAK2/STAT3 signaling and inhibition of STAT1 signaling. These effects were independent of the GF/IGF-1 axis and could be partially mediated via inhibition of cardiac IL-6.
This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of metformin vs placebo in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) undergoing IVF treatment. A total of 66 CC-resistant patients were studied prospectively. The women were randomly assigned to receive 850 mg of metformin (n = 34) or placebo (n = 32) twice daily that started 1 month before commencing the IVF treatment and continued to the day of the pregnancy test. Compared with the metformin-treated group, women who received a placebo had a significant increase in terms of days of stimulation with HMG, number of HMG ampoules, number of follicles >14 mm, number of oocytes retrieved, number of mature eggs, fertilisation rate and oestradiol level on the day of hCG administration. Similarly, women in the placebo group showed a significant increase in poor quality embryos, cancellation rate and the rate of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, as compared with the metformin-treated group. On the other hand, women who received metformin showed a significantly higher number of good quality embryos and implantation rate when compared with the placebo controls. Despite the transfer of a similar number of embryos, an insignificant increased in the pregnancy rate along with significant reduction in the abortion rate was observed in the metformin-treated group as compared with the placebo controls. No fetal abnormalities were encountered in the babies born in the metformin-treated group. It is concluded that metformin affects positively the quality of both oocytes and embryos without a significant increase in the pregnancy rate. It decreases significantly the rates of abortion and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.
Problem statement:Cadmium is one of the most dangerous occupational and environmental toxins. It is found in drinking water, atmospheric air and even in food. Cadmium is reported to be very toxic to biological systems. Until now in treating intoxication with this metal, chelating Compounds have been used, burdened with numerous undesirable symptoms. For this reason, many researches are carried out in many countries to find natural-made compounds that help in the protection against cadmium induced toxicity with fewer or no side effects. This study was conducted to demonstrate the effect of daily oral Camel's milk administration against Cadmium chloride induced toxicity in white albino rats. Approach: White albino rats of both sexes (230-250 g) were housed in standard metal cages (6 rats/cage). The experimental rats (6 in each group) distributed into two experimental groups with a shared control group received only normal saline orally (Group 1). In experimental first group a daily dose (10 mg kg 1 body weight) of cadmium chloride was orally administrated to the rats for 21 days and named Cadmium chloride treated rats. In experimental second group, the same concentrations of cadmium chloride was dissolved in 2 mL of early morning fresh Camel's milk and the whole solution was administered into the experimental rats for 21 days and named Camel's milk cadmium chloride treated group. Water and food were provided ad libitum. Results: The data indicated that, in experimental Cadmium chloride treated rats, serum albumin, calcium and blood hemoglobin were decreased compared with control group received normal saline only. Moreover, Camel's milk administration with cadmium chloride showed a significant improvement of albumin, hemoglobin and calcium levels in the serum of the rats compared with cadmium chloride treated rats. Serum iron, sodium, chloride and urea levels were significantly increased in cadmium chloride treated rats compared with control group, while the addition of camel's milk to cadmium chloride decreased the high levels of these serum parameters in the treated rats. The enzyme activities of serum Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) and serum Alkaline Phaospatase (ALP) were significantly increased by orally administration of cadmium chloride compared with control group, while adding Camel's milk to cadmium chloride decreased the high levels of these enzymes comparing with the cadmium chloride treated rats. Cadmium chloride administration resulted in a high concentration of lipid peroxidation markers; TBARS and Hydroperoxides in comparison to control group, adding camel's milk to the cadmium chloride restored the levels of these markers to their normal levels in comparing to Cadmium chloride treated rats. Also treatment with cadmium chloride alone caused a significant decrease in both the enzymatic and nonenzymatic markers of oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase and catalase) and reduced glutathione, respectively in the liver tissues of treated rats, while the admini...
Testosterone improved cardiac contractility and shortened QT and QTc intervals in ORX rats. An effect that might be dependent of reduction in oxidative stress and enhancement of Kir2.1 channels but independent of Nav1.5 channel protein.
Context Ellagic acid (EA) is used in traditional medicine to treated hyperlipidaemia. Objective This study examined if AMPK mediates the anti-steatotic effect of ellagic acid (EA) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetes mellitus in rats. Materials and methods Adult male Wistar rats (130 ± 10 g) were divided into 6 groups ( n = 8 rats/group) as control, control + EA, control + EA + CC an AMPK inhibitor), T1DM, T1DM + EA, and T1DM + EA + CC. The treatments with EA (50 mg/kg/orally) and CC (200 ng/rat/i.p.) were given the desired groups for 12 weeks, daily. Results In T1DM-rats, EA reduced fasting glucose levels (44.8%), increased fasting insulin levels (92.8%), prevented hepatic lipid accumulation, and decreased hepatic and serum levels of total triglycerides (54% & 61%), cholesterol (57% & 48%), and free fatty acids (40% & 37%). It also reduced hepatic levels of ROS (62%), MDA (52%), TNF-α (62%), and IL-6 (57.2%) and the nuclear activity of NF-κB p65 (54%) but increased the nuclear activity of Nrf-2 (4-fold) and levels of GSH (107%) and SOD (87%). Besides, EA reduced downregulated SREBP1 (35%), SREBP2 (34%), ACC-1 (36%), FAS (38%), and HMG-CoAR (49%) but stimulated mRNA levels of PPARα (1.7-fold) and CPT1a (1.8-fold), CPT1b (2.9-fold), and p-AMPK (4-fold). All these events were prevented by the co-administration of CC. Discussion and conclusions These findings encourage the use of EA to treat hepatic disorders, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Further in vivo and in vitro studies are needed to validate its potential in clinical medicine.
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