It is estimated that 15 percent of individuals with diabetes mellitus suffer from diabetic ulcers worldwide. The aim of this study is to present a non-thermal atmospheric plasma treatment as a novel therapy for diabetic wounds. The plasma consists of ionized helium gas that is produced by a high-voltage (8 kV) and high-frequency (6 kHz) power supply. Diabetes was induced in rats via an intravascular injection of streptozotocin. The plasma was then introduced to artificial xerograph wounds in the rats for 10 minutes. Immunohistochemistry assays was performed to determine the level of transforming growth factor (TGF-β1) cytokine. The results showed a low healing rate in the diabetic wounds compared with the wound-healing rate in non-diabetic animals (P < 0.05). Moreover, the results noted that plasma enhanced the wound-healing rate in the non-diabetic rats (P < 0.05), and significant wound contraction occurred after the plasma treatment compared with untreated diabetic wounds (P < 0.05). Histological analyses revealed the formation of an epidermis layer, neovascularization and cell proliferation. The plasma treatment also resulted in the release of TGF-β1 cytokine from cells in the tissue medium. The findings of this study demonstrate the effect of plasma treatment for wound healing in diabetic rats.
The current research was carried out to reveal the possible impacts of cold plasma on growth and physiology of wheat, as a new approach in plant science. Short and long-term impacts of different types of plasma (nitrogen and helium) with surface power density of 0.4 W cm-2 , exposure times (15, 30, 60, and 120 s), and repetitions (1, 2, and 4 times with 24 h intervals) were evaluated. Single-time applied helium or nitrogen derived plasma significantly promoted total root and shoot lengths, in contrast to four times application, and the root system was more sensitive than the shoot one. In addition, seedlings were more sensitive to nitrogen derived plasma, compared with helium. The physiological responses to plasma treatment were analyzed via protein assay and peroxidase or phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activities measurements. Plasma generated signaling molecules, especially ozone, nitric oxide, and/or UV radiation induced promotions in the peroxidase and PAL activities as well as increase in protein content in leaves, especially when times and/or repetitions increased. Plants were perished by the nitrogen derived plasma at the highest exposure time and number of repetitions. However, the seedlings with inhibited growth not only caught up control one month after, but even the growth rate and biomass accumulation in the shoot and leaves were accelerated. Increased leaf soluble phenol content was recorded in plasma treated seedlings, especially at longer times and more repetitions.
The advent of ultra-high power lasers allows laser power levels that are about 1000 times the power of all the power stations in the USA. This opens the way to new approaches for inertial confinement fusions (ICF) that in turn can drastically reduce the laser input energy needed to achieve practical ICF power. The specific approach discussed here involves inducing a fusion burn wave by laser-driven impact of a relatively large block of plasma on the outside of a solid density fusion target. This new method is specifically selected to enable the extremely attractive, but demanding, neutron-free proton-B-11 fusion that potentially can lead to the long sought goal of an ultra ''clean'' fusion power plant.
Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) was shown to decrease bacterial load in chronic wounds. It was also presented as a novel approach to healing wounds in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. We aimed to examine the first randomized clinical trial for the use of CAP in diabetic foot ulcers. Patients (n = 44) were randomly double-blinded, and assigned to receive standard care (SC, n = 22) without or with CAP, to be applied three times a week for three consecutive weeks (SC + CAP, n = 22), using block randomization with mixing block sizes of four. The trial was conducted at the Diabetes Research Center in Tehran, Iran. CAP was generated from ionized helium gas in ambient air, and driven by a high voltage (10 kV) and high frequency (6 kHz) power supply. Primary outcomes were wound size, number of cases reaching wound size of <0.5, and a bacterial load after over three weeks of treatment. CAP treatment effectively reduced the fraction of wound size (p = 0.02). After three weeks, the wounds to reach fraction wound size of ≤0.5 was significantly greater in the SC + CAP group (77.3%) compared to the SC group (36.4%) (p = 0.006). The mean fraction of bacterial load counted in each session 'after CAP exposure' was significantly less than 'before exposure' measures. CAP can be an efficient method to accelerate wound healing in diabetic foot ulcers, with immediate antiseptic effects that do not seem to last long. Diabetes mellitus (diabetes) accounts for 3.9% of annual non-communicable disease-related deaths that occurred worldwide and also caused significant morbidity, impairing the patients' quality-of-life 1. Diabetic foot syndrome (DFS) is directly associated with diabetes, contributing to significant morbidity, as well as economic and social burden 2. It is estimated that approximately 25% of diabetic patients will develop DFS in their lives 3. Some authors reported that patients have a 3 to 11% annual risk of developing lower-extremity ulcers 2. Despite optimal treatment, diabetic ulcers are refractory to wound healing, with more than 50% recurring in the wounds after three years 4. Diabetic foot infection can also lead to complications, e.g., delayed healing process, systemic infections, and amputation. In addition, over 15% of patients with DFS experiences a lower limb amputation 5. The survival rate is found to be significantly lower in patients who require a lower limb amputation. The cost for two years of care with a newly-diagnosed foot ulcer is over $2,700 5. This has prompted more research and studies to identify viable alternatives or additive treatment options. Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) is an innovative approach in wound healing. In vitro 6 and initial clinical studies for chronic wounds in animals 7,8 and humans 9-12 have shown that CAP decreases their bacterial load and promotes healing without any significant side effects on normal tissue. Additionally, CAP was found to facilitate the transformation of the chronic wound from becoming a stagnating wound or an acute healing wound through modulation of the i...
Physical properties of transparent and conducting indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films grown by radiofrequency (RF) magnetron sputtering are studied systematically by changing deposition time. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) data indicate polycrystalline thin films with grain orientations predominantly along the (2 2 2) and (4 0 0) directions. From atomic force microscopy (AFM) it is found that by increasing the deposition time, the roughness of the film increases. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images show a network of a high-porosity interconnected nanoparticles, which approximately have a pore size ranging between 20 and 30 nm. Optical measurements suggest an average transmission of 80 % for the ITO films. Sheet resistances are investigated using fourpoint probes, which imply that by increasing the film thickness the resistivities of the films decrease to 2.43 9 10 -5 X cm.
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