In order to study the mechanism of lameness transfer from fore‐ and hindlimb lamenesses 2 hypotheses were investigated. Hypothesis 1: Horses with a true supporting limb lameness in one hindlimb show a false supporting limb lameness in the ipsilateral forelimb. Hypothesis 2: Horses with a true supporting limb lameness in one forelimb show a false supporting limb lameness in the contralateral hindlimb.
Fourteen horses with fore‐ or hindlimb lameness were used for this study. Each horse was measured at the trot on a treadmill with standardised speed, before and after diagnostic blocks (9 horses), or with and without induced lameness (5 horses). The head acceleration asymmetry (HAAS) and the sacrum acceleration asymmetry (SAAS) were used for quantification of fore‐ and hindlimb lameness respectively. Changes were documented by changes of the HAAS or the SAAS.
In all 4 horses with a true hindlimb lameness a synchronous false lameness of the ipsilateral forelimb was documented. In 6 of 10 horses with a forelimb lameness a lameness transfer could be assessed according to hypothesis 2.
The results of this study show, that horses with a true severe lameness in the forelimb show a false lameness in the contralateral hindlimb, and horses with a true hindlimb lameness show a false lameness in the ipsilateral forelimb. This indicates that the location of the truly lame limb can be deduced from the distribution of 2 lamenesses on a sagittal or diagonal axis.
As in many other sports, e.g. gymnastics, judging dressage riding is problematic because the score is subjective. The aim of this study was to find a suitable method to support education of dressage judges and training of riders with a measurable criterion for riding harmony in the trot. We analysed the consistency of motion pattern 40 different rider–horse systems in trot (20 horses and 2 riders). A high‐speed (120 Hz) 3D video system for motion analysis was used to track 20 markers taped to the horse and the rider. The angle between the line connecting the rider’s head to the rider’s back and that between the rider’s back to the horse’s head was calculated. Angular velocity and angular acceleration were derived. The lengths of the resulting vectors (LV) in the phase space were computed. Riding harmony was defined in terms of the average deviation of LV in the phase space.
The results of our study showed the professional rider–horse system had a significantly (P < 0.05) lower average deviation of LV (11.5% ± 1.4) than the recreational rider–horse system (13% ± 2.8). Thus, the professional rider–horse system had a motion pattern that was more consistent than the recreational rider–horse system and this was correlated to the average dressage scores, which were significantly (P < 0.001) higher for the professional rider (mean score ± SD, 7.3 ± 2.7) than those for the recreational rider (4.1 ± 3.0). As motion pattern consistency is one of the main characteristics of riding harmony, the results of these measurements can be used for education of dressage judges and riders.
Reasons for performing study: Basic information about the influence of a rider on the equine back is currently lacking.
Hypothesis: That pressure distribution under a saddle is different between the walk, trot and canter.
Methods: Twelve horses without clinical signs of back pain were ridden. At least 6 motion cycles at walk, trot and canter were measured kinematically. Using a saddle pad, the pressure distribution was recorded. The maximum overall force (MOF) and centre of pressure (COP) were calculated. The range of back movement was determined from a marker placed on the withers.
Results: MOF and COP showed a consistent time pattern in each gait. MOF was 12.1 ± 1.2 and 24.3 ± 4.6 N/kg at walk and trot, respectively, in the ridden horse. In the unridden horse MOF was 172.7 ± 11.8 N (walk) and 302.4 ± 33.9 N (trot). At ridden canter, MOF was 27.2 ± 4.4 N/kg. The range of motion of the back of the ridden horse was significantly lower compared to the unridden, saddled horse.
Conclusions and potential relevance: Analyses may help quantitative and objective evaluation of the interaction between rider and horse as mediated through the saddle. The information presented is therefore of importance to riders, saddlers and equine clinicians. With the technique used in this study, style, skill and training level of different riders can be quantified, which would give the opportunity to detect potentially harmful influences and create opportunities for improvement.
The toelt of the Icelandic horse is a symmetric 4‐beat gait, with alternating single and double support phases. By definition, the duration of the diagonal and ipsilateral stance phases should be similar. The aim of this study was to investigate the stride characteristics of horses ridden at toelt, and to compare these to previous descriptions of this gait. The kinematics of 23 Icelandic horses was measured using the Expert Vision System. Mature and sound horses, used for pleasure riding and/or competitions, were ridden at toelt at 3 different speeds. For each horse, 10 strides were measured at toelting speeds of 2.9 m/s (s.d. 0.28), 3.7 m/s (s.d. 0.29) and 4.7 m/s (s.d. 0.53). Seven horses showed true toelt pattern at one or 2 speeds. At the highest speed, 60% of all motion cycles showed the pattern of 4‐beat pace. This investigation shows that the previously described toelt pattern is present only over a narrow speed range, and toelt at extended speed is, in fact, a 4‐beat pace or rarely a 4‐beat trot.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.