The effects of magnesium (Mg) and citrate on the metastable limit of calcium oxalate (CaOx) solubility (synonym: tolerable oxalate TO) were examined in artificial urine and in postprandial urine of male patients with idiopathic calcium urolithiasis (ICU). In artificial urine increasing pH, Mg and citrate elevate TO, decrease CaOx supersaturation only marginally, but elevate considerably free citrate; the effect of Mg alone was small in comparison with citrate alone, and the effects of both substances appeared additive. In ICU patients, matched for sex, age and CaOx supersaturation to non-stone-forming controls, TO was decreased (mean values 0.33 vs. 0.52 mM/l in controls, P < 0.05). Additional significant (P < 0.05) differences were found between ICU and controls: the former exhibited increased CaOx crystal growth, decreased crystal agglomeration time, a more acidic urinary pH, increased concentrations of free calcium and free Mg, and decreased free oxalate and free citrate. After ingestion of a urine-acidifying test meal, or this meal supplemented with either neutral Mg citrate or Mg-alkali citrate, by three groups of male ICU patients, matched for age and CaOx supersaturation, only the last-named preparation evoked an increase in TO and a decrease in crystal diameter, while the normally occurring pH decline from fasting urine was virtually abolished, and the ratios urinary Mg/citrate and calcium/citrate tended towards low values. In contrast, Mg citrate increased crystal agglomeration time, while changes in the other parameters were only insignificant. The crystals formed in urine were CaOx di- and monohydrate (by electron microscopy), and energy dispersive X-ray analysis showed calcium peaks exclusively. However, chemical analysis of crystals verified the presence not only of oxalate and calcium, but also of Mg, phosphate, citrate, and urate; moreover, these crystal constituents seemed to be influenced by Mg citrate and Mg-alkali citrate in different ways. It was concluded that (1) Mg and citrate are effectors of TO in artificial and natural urine; (2) in ICU, low TO and other disturbed CaOx crystallization parameters appear related to the prevailing low urinary pH and low free citrate; (3) Mg-alkali citrate inhibits CaOx crystallization, probably via actions of the citrate, but not the Mg. Because of the eminent role of Mg in human health and ICU, further studies on crystallization after oral intake of Mg in the form of citrate are warranted.
In IRCU 1) renal stones in situ in combination with high fasting uricemia, high hypoxanthinuria and protein-uria, and high MA suggest that a systemic metabolic anomaly underlies stone formation; 2) antioxidant deficit is frequent, unrelated to the presence or absence of stones but apparently related to poor renal uric acid recycling, low uricemia and albuminemia, exaggerated urinary Pi excretion, and low MA; 3) the combination of low plasma TAS, disordered Ca/Pi and other mineral ratios in urine, plasma and RBCs, but unchanged urinary Ca salt supersaturation is compatible with the view that CaPi solid and Ca microlith formation start inside oxidatively damaged cells.
In idiopathic recurrent urolithiasis (IRCU) calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate are components of stones. It is not sufficiently known whether in urine the nucleation (liquid-solid transition) of each salt requires a different environment, if so which environment, and whether there is an impact on stone formation. Nucleation was induced by in vitro addition of oxalate or calcium to post-test meal load whole urine of male stone patients (n=48), showing normal daily and baseline fasting oxaluria. The maximally tolerated (until visible precipitates occur) concentration of oxalate (T-Ox) or calcium (T-Ca) was determined; additionally evaluated were other variables in urine, including total, complexed and free citrate (F-Cit), protein (albumin, non-albumin protein) and the clinical intensity (synonymous metabolic activity; MA) of IRCU. In the first of three trials the accumulation of substances in stone-forming urine was verified (trial-V); in the second (clinical trial 1) two strata of T-Ox (Low, High) were compared; in the third (clinical trial 2) IRCU patients (n=27) and a control group (n=13) were included to clarify whether in stone-forming urine the first crystal formed was calcium oxalate or calcium phosphate, and to identify the state of F-Cit. T-Ox was studied at the original pH (average < 6.0), T-Ca at prefixed pH 6.0; the precipitates were subjected to electron microscopy and element analysis. Trial-V: Among the urinary substances accumulating at the indicated pHs were calcium, oxalate and phosphate, and the crystal-urine ratios were compatible with the nucleation of calcium oxalate, calcium-poor and calcium-rich calcium phosphate; citrate, protein and potassium also accumulated. Clinical trial 1: the two strata exhibited an inverse change of T-Ox and T-Ca, the ratio T-Ox/T-Ca and MA. The initial (before induction of Ox or Ca excess) supersaturation of calcium oxalate and brushite were unchanged, with the difference of proteinuria being borderline. Several correlations were significant (p < or = 0.05): urine pH with citrate and volume, protein with volume and MA, T-Ox with T-Ca and MA. Clinical trial 2: in patients with reduced urine volume and moderate urine calcium excess, the first precipitate appeared to be calcium oxalate, followed by amorphous calcium phosphate. Conversely, when the calcium excess was extreme, calcium-rich hydroxyapatite developed, followed by calcium oxalate; F-Cit, not total and complexed citrate, was decreased in IRCU vs. male controls; F-Cit rose pH-dependently, and the ratio F-Cit at original pH vs. F-Cit at pH 6.0 correlated inversely with the nucleation index T-Ox/T-Ca; MA correlated inversely with the ratio F-Cit at pH 6.0, respectively, original pH, but directly with the urinary albumin/non-albumin protein ratio. In summary 1) to study calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate nucleation in whole urine of IRCU patients is feasible; 2) at this crystallization stage the two substances, dominant in calcium stones, appear intimately linked, 3) in stone-forming urine, calcium phosph...
In idiopathic calcium urolithiasis the relationships between oxypurines, accompanying proteins and glucose in urine and plasma, and the associated metabolic activity (MA) are unknown. To establish whether MA is related to these parameters and to calcium oxalate crystallization, or whether it reflects a reaction of metabolism to systemic insults was the major goal of the work. One hundred fifty one males were studied in three trials: trial 1 (n=130 patients) and trial 2 (n=24 patients) were cross-sectional; trial 3 included 11 patients and 14 controls). Mean age was 46 years (trials 1 and 2) and 29 years (trial 3). In trial 1 the stratification was based on the median urinary oxypurine excretion, in trial 2 on the median plasma oxypurine concentration (below or above: Low and High subgroups). No dietary restrictions were imposed, but standardized ambulatory laboratory testing was carried out. MA was quantitated by a score. Established analytical methods were used, except for oxypurine measurement which was done by high performance liquid chromatography. Patients with kidney stones tended to be overweight (body mass index >25 kg/(m)2) and to have fasting hyperglycemia. In trial 1 severe oxypurinuria, and especially severe xanthinuria, was associated with an increase in urinary pH, creatinine clearance, proteins, uric acid, malonedialdehyde (indicator of lipid peroxidation), systolic blood pressure, and with a decrease in plasma uric acid (synonymous with a decrease of antioxidant capacity). Tubular reabsorption of proteins and stone-forming substances was diminished but MA remained unchanged despite slightly increased calcium oxalate crystal growth. In trial 2 high adenosine and xanthine coincided with elevated systolic and diastolic blood pressure, high uric acid with high urinary malonedialdehyde, high summed oxypurines minus uric acid with an increase of diastolic blood pressure, glycemia and MA; urinary nitrate (indicator of systemic vasodilation) was unchanged. In trial 3 patients' oxypurinemia and proteinuria were normal, but body mass index, glycemia and insulinemia were increased. Urinary total protein, albumin and non-albumin proteins were positively predicted (multivariate regression analysis) by urinary xanthine, glucose and pH (trial 1); MA was positively (trial 3) or negatively (trial 2) predicted by urinary total protein. In calcium urolithiasis, a disorder of affluence, 1) oxypurinuria and proteinuria and oxypurinemia and MA appear causally linked, presumably via oxidant/antioxidant imbalance-induced renal tissue damage; 2) urinary proteins may act as inhibitors or promoters of stone-forming processes; 3) a stone-initiating role of impaired vasodilatation is conjectural; 4) overweight, obesity, mild glucosuria and hyperdynamic blood circulation are regular signs.
Previous work in younger males with recurrent idiopathic calcium urolithiasis (RCU) demonstrated inappropriately high postprandial phosphaturia, hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance, but normal glycemia. To investigate further whether these abnormalities occur also in RCU patients with a mean age corresponding to the life period with peak formation of calcium-containing stones, two trials were carried out in 155 males of comparable age and body mass index. All participants underwent a standardized laboratory examination, including collection of urine and blood before and following a test meal rich in carbohydrate and calcium but low in phosphorus. In trial 1, comprising control subjects (n = 12, mean age 42 years) and RCU patients (n = 24, mean age 41 years), phosphate (Pi) excretion and fractional Pi excretion in postprandial urine of controls did not change compared with the values in fasting urine, but were significantly increased in RCU, despite the fact that there was almost equal suppression of serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and increase in serum calcitonin. Postprandially, RCU patients were hyperinsulinemic but still normoglycemic versus controls. In trial 2, carried out in unclassified (in terms of calciuria) RCU patients (n = 119, mean age 40 years) only, the post-load Pi-uria was similar in magnitude to Pi-uria of RCU patients in trial 1; increased postprandial Pi-uria was a phenomenon also of normocalciuria but was slightly more pronounced in hypercalciuria, while changes in calcium phosphate (brushite) and calcium oxalate supersaturation of urine were unrelated to calciuria. In RCU patients, but not controls, there was a tendency toward higher urinary glucose in post-load as compared with fasting urine. When urinary Pi and fractional Pi excretion in trial 2 were considered as dependent variables in multivariate regression analysis, they appeared unrelated to age, but positively associated with postprandial glycemia as the best predictor, followed by insulinemia, insulin resistance, to a lesser degree fasting serum PTH and the metabolic activity of stone disease, negatively associated with blood total lipids and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol. It was concluded that RCU males (1) show low Pi-uria during fasting but impaired renal Pi conservation in response to a mixed meal, a situation carrying the risk of Pi deficiency over the long term; (2) represent a population developing hyperPi-uria despite suppressed PTH; (3) exhibit insulin resistance but are still able to maintain normoglycemia at the expense of hyperinsulinemia. It is suggested that calcium-containing renal stones are related to impaired Pi and glucose translocation across cell membranes, and that the role of lipids in this setting deserves further investigation.
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