The sustainment of steady-state plasmas in tokamaks requires efficient current drive systems. Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) is currently the most efficient method to generate a continuous additional off-axis toroidal plasma current as well as reduce the poloidal flux consumption during the plasma current ramp-up phase. The operation of the Tore Supra ITER-like LH launcher has demonstrated the capability to couple LH power at ITER-like power densities with very low reflected power during long pulses. In addition, the installation of eight 700kW/CW klystrons at the LH transmitter has allowed increasing the total LH power in long pulse scenarios. However, in order to achieve pure stationary LH sustained plasmas, some R&D are needed to increase the reliability of all the systems and codes, from the RF sources to the plasma scenario prediction. The CEA/IRFM is addressing some of these issues by leading a R&D program towards an ITER LH system and by the validation of an integrated LH modeling suite of codes. In 2011, the RF design of a mode converter has been validated at low power. A 500 kW/5 s RF window is currently under manufacturing and will be tested at high power in 2012 in collaboration with NFRI. All of this work aims to reduce the operational risks associated with the ITER steady-state operations.
This paper reports a fishnet hyperbolic metamaterial that mimics the electromagnetic properties of magnetically confined plasma. These electromagnetic properties are strongly anisotropic and different from any conventional material, therefore cannot be mimicked by bulk materials. The structure is made of a stack of thin copper grids spaced by Rohacell foam. We numerically and experimentally show that this kind of structuration matches well the properties of a homogeneous plasma. This solution breaks a long-lasting bottleneck and will accelerate the development of high-frequency heating systems to be used in nuclear fusion.
This paper presents concepts for Ion Cyclotron and Lower Hybrid Current Drive arrays applicable to fusion reactors and based on periodically loaded line power division. It is shown that, in large arrays, such as the ones proposed for fusion reactor applications, these schemes can offer, in principle, a number of practical advantages, compared with currently adopted ones, such as in-blanket operation at significantly reduced power density, lay out suitable for water cooling, single ended or balanced power feed, simple and load independent impedance matching In addition, a remote and accurate real time measurement of the complex impedance of all array elements as well as detection, location, and measurement of the complex admittance of a single arc occurring anywhere in the structure is possible.
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