In this research work, the antibacterial activity of inoculated cotton fabric in various metallic salts was investigated. Copper chloride, nickel nitrate, silver nitrate, cobalt oxide, antimony oxide, titanium oxide and tin chloride were used as metallic salts. Very good antibacterial activity for silver-, copper-, nickel-and cobalt-treated fabrics were achieved, however, the effect of titanium and tin on antibacterial efficiency of cotton fabrics was moderate. The scanning electron microscope was used for morphological study. Also, the crystallinity and size of crystals for inoculated and untreated samples were studied by using X-ray diffraction method. The results are truly discussed in full paper.
Cadmium telluride (CdTe) is a p-type II-VI compound semiconductor, which is an active component for producing photovoltaic solar cells in the form of thin films, due to its desirable physical properties. In this study, CdTe film was deposited using the radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering system onto a glass substrate. To improve the properties of the CdTe film, effects of two experimental parameters of deposition time and RF power were investigated on the physical properties of the CdTe films. X-ray Diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and spectrophotometer were used to study the structural, morphological and optical properties of the CdTe samples grown at different experimental conditions, respectively. Our results suggest that film properties strongly depend on the experimental parameters and by optimizing these parameters, it is possible to tune the desired structural, morphological and optical properties. From XRD data, it is found that increasing the deposition time and RF power leads to increasing the crystallinity as well as the crystal sizes of the grown film, and all the films represent zinc blende cubic structure. Roughness values given from AFM images suggest increasing the roughness of the CdTe films by increasing the RF power and deposition times. Finally, optical investigations reveal increasing the film band gaps by increasing the RF power and the deposition time.
Energy production by laser driven fusion energy is highly matured by spherical compression and ignition of deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel. An alternative scheme is the fast ignition where petawatt (PW)-picosecond (ps) laser pulses are used. A significant anomaly was measured and theoretically analyzed with very clean PW-ps laser pulses for avoiding relativistic self focusing. This permits a come-back of the side-on ignition scheme of uncompressed solid DT, which is in essential contrast to the spherical compression scheme. The conditions of side-on ignition thresholds needed exorbitantly high energy flux densities E*. These conditions are now in reach by using PW-ps laser pulses to verify side-on ignition for DT. Generalizing this to side-on igniting solid state density proton-Boron-11 (HB11) arrives at the surprising result that this is one order of magnitude more difficult than the DT fusion. This is in contrast to the well known impossibility of igniting HB11 by spherical laser compression and may offer fusion energy production with exclusion of neutron generation and nuclear radiation effects with a minimum of heat pollution in power stations and application for long mission space propulsion.
Fast ignition for fusion energy by using petawatt-picosecond (PW-ps) laser pulses was modified due to an anomaly based on extremely clean suppression of prepulses. The resulting plasma blocks with space charge neutral ion current densities above 1011Amp/cm2may be used to ignite deuterium-tritium at densities at or little above solid state density. The difficulty is to produce extremely high energy flux densities of the blocks. Results are reported how the threshold can be reduced by a factor up to fife if the inhibition factor for thermal conductivity due to electric double layers is included in the hydrodynamic analysis.
Cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films are deposited on the fluorine doped tin oxide coated glass substrate using the radio frequency magnetron sputtering setup. The effects of annealing in air on the structural, morphological, and optical properties of CdS thin film are studied. Optimal annealing temperature is investigated by annealing the CdS thin film at different annealing temperatures of 300, 400, and 500°C. Thin films of CdS are characterized by X-ray diffractometer analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer and four point probe. The as-grown CdS films are found to be polycrystalline in nature with a mixture of cubic and hexagonal phases. By increasing the annealing temperature to 500°C, CdS film showed cubic phase, indicating the phase transition of CdS. It is found from physical characterizations that the heat treatment in air increased the mean grain size, the transmission, and the surface roughness of the CdS thin film, which are desired to the application in solar cells as a window layer material.
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