The strength of the respiratory muscles can be evaluated from static measurements (maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures, MIP and MEP) or inferred from dynamic maneuvers (maximal voluntary ventilation, MVV). Although these data could be suitable for a number of clinical and research applications, no previous studies have provided reference values for such tests using a healthy, randomly selected sample of the adult Brazilian population. With this main purpose, we prospectively evaluated 100 non-smoking subjects (50 males and 50 females), 20 to 80 years old, selected from more than 8,000 individuals. Gender-specific linear prediction equations for MIP, MEP and MVV were developed by multiple regression analysis: age and, secondarily, anthropometric measurements explained up to 56% of the variability of the dependent variables. The most cited previous studies using either Caucasian or non-Caucasian samples systematically underestimated the observed values of MIP (P<0.05). Interestingly, the self-reported level of regular physical activity and maximum aerobic power correlates strongly with both respiratory and peripheral muscular strength (knee extensor peak torque) (P<0.01). Our results, therefore, provide a new frame of reference to evaluate the normalcy of some useful indexes of respiratory muscle strength in Brazilian males and females aged 20 to 80.
All of the most widely-cited studies for the prediction of maximum exercise responses have utilized either volunteers or referred subjects. Therefore, selection bias, with overestimation of the reference values, is a likely consequence.In order to establish a set of predictive equations for the gas exchange, ventilatory and cardiovascular responses to maximum ramp-incremental cycle ergometry, this study prospectively evaluated 120 sedentary individuals (60 males, 60 females, aged 20±80), randomly-selected from >8,000 subjects. Regular physical activity pattern by questionnaire, body composition by anthropometry and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (n=75) and knee strength by isokinetic dynamometry were also assessed.Previously reported equations typically overestimated the subjects' peak oxygen uptake (p<0.05). Prediction linear equations for the main variables of clinical interest were established by backward stepwise regression analysis including: sex, age, knee extensor peak torque, bone-free lean leg mass, total and lean body mass, height, and physical activity scores. Reference intervals (95% confidence limits) were calculated: some of these values differed markedly from those formerly recommended.The results therefore might provide a more appropriate frame of reference for interpretation of the responses to symptom-limited ramp incremental cycle ergometry in sedentary subjects; i.e. those usually referred tor clinical cardiopulmonary exercise tests.
Discrepancies between ANTHRO and DEXA measurements of FFM depend on the magnitude of the estimate: differences are typically within 10 to 15%. Importantly, FFM-corrected peak VO2 values can vary according to the method chosen for body composition assessment, especially when allometry is used for peak VO2 correction. These results demonstrate that ANTHRO-DEXA differences in FFM estimation do have relevant practical consequences for the analysis of maximum aerobic capacity in nontrained humans.
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