Aquino, R, Carling, C, Palucci Vieira, LH, Martins, G, Jabor, G, Machado, J, Santiago, P, Garganta, J, and Puggina, E. Influence of situational variables, team formation, and playing position on match running performance and social network analysis of brazilian professional soccer players. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-The purpose of this study was to investigate the independent and interactive effects of situational variables, opposition team formation, and playing position on running performance and network analysis in Brazilian professional soccer players (n = 22). Global positioning system technology was used to determine total distance covered, mean speed, maximum running speed, and distance covered in 6 speed ranges. Social network analysis was used to assess interpersonal coordination (team interactions characterized as successful passes [n = 3,033] between teammates). Observations of match running performance (n = 129) and network analysis (n = 108) were obtained. The main results were: (a) no interactive effects between team formation and playing position were observed for running and network variables (unclear to possibly); (b) matches played at home or against "weaker" opponents presented greater running demands and individual/global metrics of network analysis (likely to almost certain); (c) match outcome demonstrated influence only for running performance; matches in which the reference team won resulted in higher values than in matches lost; (d) when the reference team competed in 1-4-4-2 formation, this resulted in greater running demands than 1-4-2-3-1 formation (likely to almost certain); (e) reduced values of running performance variables were reported in central defenders compared with other positions. Central/external midfielders reported greater closeness/betweenness centrality, outdegree, and eigenvector compared with central/external defenders and forwards (likely to almost certain). The results from this study provide practical information to potentially impact on physical, tactical, and technical training.
Aquino, R, Munhoz Martins, GH, Palucci Vieira, LH, and Menezes, RP. Influence of match location, quality of opponents and match status on movement patterns in brazilian professional football players. J Strength Cond Res 31(8): 2155-2161, 2017-The aim of this study was to examine the independent and interactive effects of match location, quality of opponents, and match status on the movement patterns in a professional Brazilian football team. Sixteen matches of the fourth division Brazilian Championship of 2015 were analyzed during the competitive stages (classifier, 8 matches; octave-finals, 2 matches; quarterfinals, 2 matches; semifinals, 2 matches; and finals, 2 matches). A 5-Hz Global Positioning System Sports QSTARZ was used to record the total distance (TD), maximum speed (VMAX), average speed (VAVERAGE), and frequency of high-intensity activities (HIA). The Student's t-test for independent samples showed significantly higher values (p ≤ 0.05) of VMAX, VAVERAGE, and HIA in home matches when compared with away matches. Comparing the quality of opponents, statistically higher values of TD, VMAX, and HIA were found when the team played against strong opponents. Regarding match status, 1-way analysis of variance demonstrated that when the team won presented significantly higher values of TD, VMAX, VAVERAGE, and HIA compared with matches when the team lost. There were no substantial interactive effects of match situational variables on movement patterns. Finally, multiple linear regression showed that the variable quality of opponents has a higher relative contribution to the variance in HIA (19%) than match status (16%) and match location (4%). In particular, the results indicate that physical performance in professional football is influenced by match situational variables, resulting in a change in the team's style of play.
Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of futsal match-related fatigue on running performance, neuromuscular variables, and finishing kick speed and accuracy.Methods: Ten professional futsal players participated in the study (age: 22.2 ± 2.5 years) and initially performed an incremental protocol to determine maximum oxygen uptake (trueV˙O2max: 50.6 ± 4.9 mL.kg−1.min−1). Next, simulated games were performed, in four periods of 10 min during which heart rate and blood lactate concentration were monitored. The entire games were video recorded for subsequent automatic tracking. Before and immediately after the simulated game, neuromuscular function was measured by maximal isometric force of knee extension, voluntary activation using twitch interpolation technique, and electromyographic activity. Before, at half time, and immediately after the simulated game, the athletes also performed a set of finishing kicks for ball speed and accuracy measurements.Results: Total distance covered (1st half: 1986.6 ± 74.4 m; 2nd half: 1856.0 ± 129.7 m, P = 0.00) and distance covered per minute (1st half: 103.2 ± 4.4 m.min−1; 2nd half: 96.4 ± 7.5 m.min−1, P = 0.00) demonstrated significant declines during the simulated game, as well as maximal isometric force of knee extension (Before: 840.2 ± 66.2 N; After: 751.6 ± 114.3 N, P = 0.04) and voluntary activation (Before: 85.9 ± 7.5%; After: 74.1 ± 12.3%, P = 0.04), however ball speed and accuracy during the finishing kicks were not significantly affected.Conclusion: Therefore, we conclude that despite the decline in running performance and neuromuscular variables presenting an important manifestation of central fatigue, this condition apparently does not affect the speed and accuracy of finishing kicks.
The influence on gas-phase catalytic glycerol dehydration of crystal size (S: small, or L: large crystals), acidity, and synthesis procedure for isomorphous incorporation of gallium (Ga-S; Ga-L) or aluminum (Al-S; AlL) in MFI zeolites was studied. The main product observed was acrolein, with the undesirable parallel formation of deactivating coke molecules such as polyglycols and polyaromatics. The GaS zeolite showed the best performance in this reaction, as it provided a combination of adequate accessibility to the microporous system and weak Brønsted acid sites. The chemical and structural properties of the fresh MFI zeolites were studied by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen sorption measurements, scanning electron microscopy, temperature-programmed desorption of NH 3 , X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and 27 Al and 29 Si MAS-NMR. Solid-state 13 C MAS-NMR and thermogravimetric analyses of the spent MFI zeolites confirmed the differences in the nature and amounts of the carbonaceous deposits formed. The polyglycols were preferentially formed on the external surface of the zeolite crystals, as expected due to the greater exposed area. On the other hand, the polyaromatic compounds formed were more abundant inside the micropores of the MFI zeolites, especially those composed of larger crystals and with a greater number of strong Brønsted acid sites.
Background To date, athletic performance has been extensively assessed in youth soccer players through laboratory and field testing. Only recently has running performance via time-motion analysis been assessed during match play. Match running data are often useful in a practical context to aid game understanding and decision making regarding training content and prescriptions. A plethora of previous reviews have collated and appraised the literature on time-motion analysis in professional senior players, but none have solely examined youth players. Objective The aim of the present systematic review was to provide a critical appraisal and summary of the original research articles that have evaluated match running performance in young male soccer players. Methods Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) statement, literature searches were performed in four databases: PubMed, ISI Web of Science, SPORTDiscus and SciELO. We used the following descriptors: soccer, football, young, youth, junior, physical performance, running performance, match running performance, movement patterns, time-motion analysis, distances covered, activity profile, work rate, match analysis, and match performance. Articles were included only if they were original articles written in the English language, studied populations of male children and/or adolescents (aged ≤ 20 years), were published/ahead of print on or before 31 December 2017 and showed at least one outcome measure regarding match running performance, such as total distance covered, peak game speed or indicators of activities performed at established speed thresholds. Results A total of 5801 records were found. After duplicates were removed and exclusion and inclusion criteria applied, 50 articles were included (n = 2615 participants). Their outcome measures were extracted and findings were synthesized. The majority of the reviewed papers covered the European continent (62%) and used global positioning systems (GPS) (64%). Measurement error of the tools used to obtain position data and running metrics was systematically overlooked among the studies. The main aims of studies were to examine differences across playing positions (20%), age groups (26%) and match halves (36%). Consistent findings pointed to the existence of positional role and age effects on match running output (using fixed running speed thresholds), but there was no clear consensus about reductions in activity over the course of match play. Congested schedules negatively affected players' running performance. While over 32% of all studies assessed the relationships between match running performance and physical capacity, biochemical markers and body composition, ~ 70% of these did not account for playing position. Conclusions This review collated scientific evidence that can aid soccer conditioning professionals in understanding external match loads across youth categories. Coaches working with youth development programs should consider that data derived from a given po...
This study examined the effects of competitive standard, team formation and playing position on match running performance in a Brazilian professional soccer team. Performance was investigated in 36 players in 48 matches at three competitive standards: 1 st São Paulo State Championship; 3 rd and 4 th Brazilian leagues. Global Positioning System technology was used to determine total distance covered (TD), maximal running speed (MRS), mean speed (SMEAN) and frequency of high-intensity activities (HIA). Data were compared across competitive standards, team formations and playing positions. Magnitude-based inferences showed greater values for TD, SMEAN and HIA (likely to almost certain) in the lower national (3 rd , 4 th Brazilian) versus the top state division (1 st São Paulo). Higher values for all variables were reported for the 1-4-3-3 versus the 1-4-4-2 formation (likely to almost certain). External defenders/midfielders and forwards reported greater values (likely to almost certain) versus central defenders/midfielders, especially in HIA. Linear regression analyses showed that playing position demonstrated a higher relative contribution to the variance in MRS (24%) and HIA (29%) compared to team formation (16% and 25%, respectively). In a Brazilian professional soccer team, match running performance was dependent upon competitive standard, playing formation and playing position.
The aims of the current study were to analyze a kick from 10 m in a futsal context and the parameters of muscular strength using an isokinetic dynamometer in a laboratory environment, performed with the dominant (DL) and nondominant lower limbs (NDL). Seventeen professional elite players participated. Kicking performance was evaluated from the second penalty mark. Next, athletes completed a strength evaluation with an isokinetic dynamometer at speeds of 60°⋅s, 180°⋅s, and 300°⋅s. Significant differences were observed for hip (15.64 ± 3.44; 13.97 ± 2.62), ankle (63.19 ± 8.90; 52.55 ± 8.72), foot (82.31 ± 7.93; 68.41 ± 7.85), and ball (99.74 ± 8.45; 88.31 ± 7.93) speeds (km⋅h), and average power at 180°⋅s (325.59 ± 40.47; 315.79 ± 39.49 W), but not for accuracy (1.33 ± 0.57; 1.66 ± 0.77 m) between the DL and NDL, respectively. Few moderate correlations were observed in the DL (r = .54-.64) or NDL (r = .53-.55) between the kinematic variables of kick and muscular strength parameters (P < .05). We conclude that highly trained players present asymmetries in kicking motion; however, the imbalance in muscular strength is very small. We recommend that specific court tests be conducted to reliably characterize kicking performance in futsal. Success in kicking seems to be too variable and complex to be totally predicted only by joints, foot and ball speed, and lower limb muscular strength parameters.
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