The strength of the respiratory muscles can be evaluated from static measurements (maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures, MIP and MEP) or inferred from dynamic maneuvers (maximal voluntary ventilation, MVV). Although these data could be suitable for a number of clinical and research applications, no previous studies have provided reference values for such tests using a healthy, randomly selected sample of the adult Brazilian population. With this main purpose, we prospectively evaluated 100 non-smoking subjects (50 males and 50 females), 20 to 80 years old, selected from more than 8,000 individuals. Gender-specific linear prediction equations for MIP, MEP and MVV were developed by multiple regression analysis: age and, secondarily, anthropometric measurements explained up to 56% of the variability of the dependent variables. The most cited previous studies using either Caucasian or non-Caucasian samples systematically underestimated the observed values of MIP (P<0.05). Interestingly, the self-reported level of regular physical activity and maximum aerobic power correlates strongly with both respiratory and peripheral muscular strength (knee extensor peak torque) (P<0.01). Our results, therefore, provide a new frame of reference to evaluate the normalcy of some useful indexes of respiratory muscle strength in Brazilian males and females aged 20 to 80.
Static lung volume (LV) measurements have a number of clinical and research applications; however, no previous studies have provided reference values for such tests using a healthy sample of the adult Brazilian population. With this as our main purpose, we prospectively evaluated 100 non-smoking subjects (50 males and 50 females), 20 to 80 years old, randomly selected from more than 8,000 individuals. Gender-specific linear prediction equations were developed by multiple regression analysis with total lung capacity (TLC), functional residual capacity (FRC), residual volume (RV), RV/TLC ratio and inspiratory capacity (IC) as dependent variables, and with age, height, weight, lean body mass and indexes of physical fitness as independent ones. Simpler demographic and anthropometric variables were as useful as more complex measurements in predicting LV values, independent of gender and age (R 2 values ranging from 0.49 to 0.78, P<0.001). Interestingly, prediction equations from North American and European studies overestimated the LV at low volumes and underestimated them at high volumes (P<0.05). Our results, therefore, provide a more appropriate frame of reference to evaluate the normalcy of static lung volume values in Brazilian males and females aged 20 to 80 years.
All of the most widely-cited studies for the prediction of maximum exercise responses have utilized either volunteers or referred subjects. Therefore, selection bias, with overestimation of the reference values, is a likely consequence.In order to establish a set of predictive equations for the gas exchange, ventilatory and cardiovascular responses to maximum ramp-incremental cycle ergometry, this study prospectively evaluated 120 sedentary individuals (60 males, 60 females, aged 20±80), randomly-selected from >8,000 subjects. Regular physical activity pattern by questionnaire, body composition by anthropometry and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (n=75) and knee strength by isokinetic dynamometry were also assessed.Previously reported equations typically overestimated the subjects' peak oxygen uptake (p<0.05). Prediction linear equations for the main variables of clinical interest were established by backward stepwise regression analysis including: sex, age, knee extensor peak torque, bone-free lean leg mass, total and lean body mass, height, and physical activity scores. Reference intervals (95% confidence limits) were calculated: some of these values differed markedly from those formerly recommended.The results therefore might provide a more appropriate frame of reference for interpretation of the responses to symptom-limited ramp incremental cycle ergometry in sedentary subjects; i.e. those usually referred tor clinical cardiopulmonary exercise tests.
Study Design: A prospective, controlled, randomized study. Objective: To establish reference values for prediction of concentric isokinetic knee strength and power in a sample of nonathletic men and women. Background: Adequate interpretation of knee isokinetic strength and power relies on a representative frame of reference. However, none of the most widely cited prediction studies used a randomly selected sample of nonathletic subjects, therefore limiting the clinical application of these studies.Methods and Measures: We evaluated the concentric right and left knee extensor and flexor peak torque, total work, set total work, average power, and torque acceleration energy (Cybex 6000 System) in 96 healthy subjects (45 men and 51 women, aged 20 to 801, randomly selected from more than 8000 individuals. Results: By stepwise regression analysis, we found that gender, age, weight, height, and regular physical activity explained up to 84% of the variability of the dependent variables: a set of linear prediction equations for strength (at 60' 1s) and power (at 300°/s) is provided. Conclusions: Results from this study might provide a clinically useful frame of reference for interpretation of concentric isokinetic knee strength and power in nonathletic men and women.I Orthop Sports Phys 7her 1999;29:116-126.
Background: Respiratory muscle unloading during exercise could improve locomotor muscle oxygenation by increasing oxygen delivery (higher cardiac output and/or arterial oxygen content) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods: Sixteen non-hypoxaemic men (forced expiratory volume in 1 s 42.2 (13.9)% predicted) undertook, on different days, two constant work rate (70-80% peak) exercise tests receiving proportional assisted ventilation (PAV) or sham ventilation. Relative changes (D%) in deoxyhaemoglobin (HHb), oxyhaemoglobin (O 2 Hb), tissue oxygenation index (TOI) and total haemoglobin (Hb tot ) in the vastus lateralis muscle were measured by nearinfrared spectroscopy. In order to estimate oxygen delivery (DO 2 est, l/min), cardiac output and oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ) were continuously monitored by impedance cardiography and pulse oximetry, respectively. Results: Exercise tolerance (Tlim) and oxygen uptake were increased with PAV compared with sham ventilation. In contrast, end-exercise blood lactate/Tlim and leg effort/Tlim ratios were lower with PAV (p,0.05). There were no between-treatment differences in cardiac output and SpO 2 either at submaximal exercise or at Tlim (ie, DO 2 est remained unchanged with PAV; p.0.05). Leg muscle oxygenation, however, was significantly enhanced with PAV as the exercise-related decrease in D(O 2 Hb)% was lessened and TOI was improved; moreover, D(Hb tot )%, an index of local blood volume, was increased compared with sham ventilation (p,0.01). Conclusions: Respiratory muscle unloading during highintensity exercise can improve peripheral muscle oxygenation despite unaltered systemic DO 2 in patients with advanced COPD. These findings might indicate that a fraction of the available cardiac output had been redirected from ventilatory to appendicular muscles as a consequence of respiratory muscle unloading.
Background-Aerobic training has a number of well known beneficial eVects in both normal and asthmatic children. However, the impact of training on the clinical management of the underlying bronchial asthma remains controversial, particularly in the most severe patients. Methods-Clinicalevaluation, spirometric tests, symptom limited maximum exercise testing, and exercise challenge tests were performed in a group of children with stable moderate to severe asthma. Forty two patients (24 boys) aged 8-16 were evaluated twice: before and after supervised aerobic training (group 1, n = 26) and two months apart (untrained group 2, n = 16). Results-Spirometric and maximal exercise variables in the initial evaluation were significantly reduced in group 1 (p<0.05) but medication and clinical scores and the occurrence of exercise induced bronchospasm (EIB) did not diVer between the two groups. Aerobic improvement with training (maximal oxygen uptake and/or anaerobic threshold increment >10% and 100 ml) was inversely related to the baseline level of fitness and was independent of disease severity. Although the clinical score and the occurrence of EIB did not change after training, aerobic improvement was associated with a significant reduction in the medication score and the daily use of both inhaled and oral steroids (p<0.05). Conclusions-Aerobic improvement with training in less fit asthmatic children is related to a short term decrease in the daily use of inhaled and oral steroids, independent of the severity of the disease.
A 6-min step test (6MST) may constitute a practical method for routinely assessing effort tolerance and exercise-related oxyhaemoglobin desaturation (ERD) in the primary care of patients with interstitial lung disease.In total, 31 patients (19 males) with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (n525) and chronic hypersensitivity pneumonia were submitted, on different days, to two 6MSTs. Physiological responses were compared with those found on maximal and submaximal cycle ergometer tests at the same oxygen uptake (V9O 2 ). Chronic breathlessness was also determined, as measured by the baseline dyspnoea index (BDI).Responses to 6MST were highly reproducible: 1.3¡2.0 steps?min -1 , ¡5 beats?min -1 (cardiac frequency), ¡50 mL?min -1 (V9O 2 ), ¡7 L?min -1 (minute ventilation) and ¡2% (arterial oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry (Sp,O 2 )). The number of steps climbed in 6 min was correlated to peak V9O 2 and the BDI. There were significant associations among the tests in relation to presence (change in Sp,O 2 between rest and exercise o4%) and severity (Sp,O 2 ,88%) of ERD. Four patients, however, presented ERD only in response to 6MST. Resting diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide and alveolar-arterial oxygen tension difference were the independent predictors of the number of steps climbed. A single-stage, self-paced 6-min step test provided reliable and reproducible estimates of exercise capacity and exercise-related oxyhaemoglobin desaturation in interstitial lung disease patients.
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