The anatomical localization of clinically effective electrode contacts provided in this study yields useful information for the postoperative programming of DBS electrodes.
We analyzed the influence of emissions from burning sugar cane on the respiratory system during almost 1 year in the city of Piracicaba in southeast Brazil. From April 1997 through March 1998, samples of inhalable particles were collected, separated into fine and coarse particulate mode, and analyzed for black carbon and tracer elements. At the same time, we examined daily records of children (< 13 years of age) and elderly people (> 64 years of age) admitted to the hospital because of respiratory diseases. Generalized linear models were adopted with natural cubic splines to control for season and linear terms to control for weather. Analyses were carried out for the entire period, as well as for burning and nonburning periods. Additional models were built using three factors obtained from factor analysis instead of particles or tracer elements. Increases of 10.2 μg/m3 in particles ≥ 2.5 μm/m3 aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) and 42.9 μg/m3 in PM10 were associated with increases of 21.4% [95% confidence interval (CI), 4.3–38.5] and 31.03% (95% CI, 1.25–60.21) in child and elderly respiratory hospital admissions, respectively. When we compared periods, the effects during the burning period were much higher than the effects during nonburning period. Elements generated from sugar cane burning (factor 1) were those most associated with both child and elderly respiratory admissions. Our results show the adverse impact of sugar cane burning emissions on the health of the population, reinforcing the need for public efforts to reduce and eventually eliminate this source of air pollution.
Proline accumulates in a variety of plant species in response to stresses such as drought, salinity and extreme temperatures. Although its role in plant osmotolerance remains controversial, proline is thought to contribute to osmotic adjustment, detoxification of reactive oxygen species and protection of membrane integrity. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of stress‐inducible proline production on osmotic adjustment, chlorophyll fluorescence and oxidative stress protection in transgenic sugarcane transformed with a heterologous P5CS gene. In well‐watered conditions, free proline, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, Fv/Fm ratios and chlorophyll contents (Chls) in transgenic sugarcane were not statistically different from non‐transformed control plants. After 9 days without irrigation, proline content in transgenic events was on the average 2.5‐fold higher than in controls. However, no osmotic adjustment was observed in plants overproducing proline during the water‐deficit period. The photochemical efficiency of PSII observed was higher (65%) in the transgenic events at the end of the water‐deficit experiment. The effects of proline on lipid peroxidation as MDA levels and on the decline of Chl in paraquat‐treated leaf discs along the drought period suggest that proline protected the plants against the oxidative stress caused by the water deficit. The overall capacity of transgenic plants to tolerate water‐deficit stress could be assessed by the significantly higher biomass yields 12 days after withholding water. These results suggest that stress‐inducible proline accumulation in transgenic sugarcane plants under water‐deficit stress acts as a component of antioxidative defense system rather than as an osmotic adjustment mediator.
The molecular mechanisms of plant recognition, colonization, and nutrient exchange between diazotrophic endophytes and plants are scarcely known. Herbaspirillum seropedicae is an endophytic bacterium capable of colonizing intercellular spaces of grasses such as rice and sugar cane. The genome of H. seropedicae strain SmR1 was sequenced and annotated by The Paraná State Genome Programme—GENOPAR. The genome is composed of a circular chromosome of 5,513,887 bp and contains a total of 4,804 genes. The genome sequence revealed that H. seropedicae is a highly versatile microorganism with capacity to metabolize a wide range of carbon and nitrogen sources and with possession of four distinct terminal oxidases. The genome contains a multitude of protein secretion systems, including type I, type II, type III, type V, and type VI secretion systems, and type IV pili, suggesting a high potential to interact with host plants. H. seropedicae is able to synthesize indole acetic acid as reflected by the four IAA biosynthetic pathways present. A gene coding for ACC deaminase, which may be involved in modulating the associated plant ethylene-signaling pathway, is also present. Genes for hemagglutinins/hemolysins/adhesins were found and may play a role in plant cell surface adhesion. These features may endow H. seropedicae with the ability to establish an endophytic life-style in a large number of plant species.
We derive expressions of interatomic force and heat current for many-body potentials such as the Tersoff, the Brenner, and the Stillinger-Weber potential used extensively in molecular dynamics simulations of covalently bonded materials. Although these potentials have a many-body nature, a pairwise force expression that follows Newton's third law can be found without referring to any partition of the potential. Based on this force formula, a stress applicable for periodic systems can be unambiguously defined. The force formula can then be used to derive the heat current formulas using a natural potential partitioning. Our heat current formulation is found to be equivalent to most of the seemingly different heat current formulas used in the literature, but to deviate from the stress-based formula derived from two-body potential. We validate our formulation numerically on various systems described by the Tersoff potential, namely three-dimensional silicon and diamond, two-dimensional graphene, and quasi-one-dimensional carbon nanotube. The effects of cell size and production time used in the simulation are examined.
Este artigo analisa os aspectos essenciais da reforma administrativa do Estado que está sendo proposta pelo Governo Fernando Henrique Cardoso. Como resposta à crise do Estado e ao processo de globalização da economia mundial, essa proposta visa fundamentalmente implantar uma administração do tipo gerencial no setor público brasileiro, em contraposição a uma administração do tipo burocrática, atualmente predominante. No texto, faz-se uma análise da crise da administração pública burocrática brasileira e são definidas as linhas mestras para a implantação da administração pública gerencial, fundamental para responder à redefinição das funções do Estado. Finalmente, relacionam-se as ações realizadas pelo Estado, que podem ser divididas em quatro tipos — núcleo estratégico, atividades exclusivas de Estado, serviços sociais competitivos ou não exclusivos, e produção para o mercado — com três tipos de propriedade. Os primeiros dois tipos de ações estão relacionados à propriedade pública estatal; o terceiro tipo de ação à propriedade pública não-estatal; e o quarto tipo de ação à propriedade privada.
Adenosine (Ado) kinase (ADK; ATP:Ado 5Ј phosphotransferase, EC 18.104.22.168) catalyzes the salvage synthesis of adenine monophosphate from Ado and ATP. In Arabidopsis, ADK is encoded by two cDNAs that share 89% nucleotide identity and are constitutively, yet differentially, expressed in leaves, stems, roots, and flowers. To investigate the role of ADK in plant metabolism, lines deficient in this enzyme activity have been created by sense and antisense expression of the ADK1 cDNA. The levels of ADK activity in these lines range from 7% to 70% of the activity found in wild-type Arabidopsis. Transgenic plants with 50% or more of the wild-type activity have a normal morphology. In contrast, plants with less than 10% ADK activity are small with rounded, wavy leaves and a compact, bushy appearance. Because of the lack of elongation of the primary shoot, the siliques extend in a cluster from the rosette. Fertility is decreased because the stamen filaments do not elongate normally; hypocotyl and root elongation are reduced also. The hydrolysis of S-adenosyl-l-homo-cysteine (SAH) produced from S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM)-dependent methylation reactions is a key source of Ado in plants. The lack of Ado salvage in the ADK-deficient lines leads to an increase in the SAH level and results in the inhibition of SAMdependent transmethylation. There is a direct correlation between ADK activity and the level of methylesterified pectin in seed mucilage, as monitored by staining with ruthenium red, immunofluorescence labeling, or direct assay. These results indicate that Ado must be steadily removed by ADK to prevent feedback inhibition of SAH hydrolase and maintain SAM utilization and recycling.
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