This study discussed the use of antimicrobials in the commercial chicken production system and the possible factors influencing the presence of Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)/AmpC producers strains in the broiler production chain. The aim of this study was to perform longitudinal monitoring of ESBL-producing and fosfomycin-resistant Escherichia coli from poultry farms in southern Brazil (Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul states) and determine the possible critical points that may be reservoirs for these strains. Samples of poultry litter, cloacal swabs, poultry feed, water, and beetles (Alphitobius sp.) were collected during three distinct samplings. Phenotypic and genotypic tests were performed for characterization of antimicrobial resistant strains. A total of 117 strains were isolated and 78 (66%) were positive for ESBL production. The poultry litter presented ESBL positive strains in all three sampled periods, whereas the cloacal swab presented positive strains only from the second period. The poultry litter represents a significant risk factor mainly at the beginning poultry production (odds ratio 6.43, 95% confidence interval 1–41.21, p < 0.05). All beetles presented ESBL positive strains. The predominant gene was blaCTX–M group 2, which occurred in approximately 55% of the ESBL-producing E. coli. The cit gene was found in approximately 13% of the ESBL-producing E. coli as AmpC type determinants. A total of 19 out of 26 fosfomycin-resistant strains showed the fosA3 gene, all of which produced ESBL. The correlation between fosA3 and blaCTX–M group 1 (blaCTX–M55) genes was significant among ESBL-producing E. coli isolated from Paraná (OR 3.66, 95% CI 1.9–9.68) and these genetic determinants can be transmitted by conjugation to broiler chicken microbiota strains. Our data revealed that poultry litter and beetles were critical points during poultry production and the presence of fosfomycin-resistant strains indicate the possibility of risks associated with the use of this antimicrobial during production. Furthermore, the genetic determinants encoding CTX-M and fosA3 enzymes can be transferred to E. coli strains from broiler chicken microbiota, thereby creating a risk to public health.
Cow raw milk cheese is widely eaten in Brazil. These products may be contaminated with pathogenic bacteria. In this work, we investigated the presence of Escherichia coli in raw milk cheese from different States in Brazil. From 147 "Minas" cheese samples, 28 cheeses were positive for E. coli. Among 39 E. coli isolates of the cheeses, one was positive for eae and negative for bpfA and efa1/lifA using PCR, and so was classified as atypical Enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC). Two other isolates were positive for extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) genes. The aEPEC isolate belongs to serogroup O127 and was classified in A phylogenetic group, and ExPEC isolates were found in O73:H12 (EC-2 strain) and O64474:H8 (EC-9 strain) serotype. This ExPEC belongs to A and C phylogenetic group, respectively. Most of E. coli strains belonged to Clermont phylogenetic groups A (28.2%), C, and E (23.1%). Six strains (15.4%) of E. coli were positive for group B1 and two (5.1%) for B2. E. coli isolates presented an aggregative (46.0%) and diffuse (12.6%) adherence pattern to HeLa cells, and the other isolates did not show adhesion (41.4%). Four E. coli isolates (10.3%) were shown to produce moderate biofilm. The antimicrobial resistance rate was tetracycline (25.6%), followed by ampicillin (17.9%), cefoxitin (7.7%), nalidixic acid (5.1%), and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (2.6%). One strain was resistant to three antimicrobials (tetracycline, ampicillin, and nalidixic acid). The presence of these microorganisms, the O127 strain, and a new serogroup in Brazil is a potential risk for public health.
Poultry litter is commonly used as fertilizer in agriculture. However, this poultry litter must be processed prior to use, since poultry have a large number of pathogenic microorganisms. The aims of this study were to isolate and genotypically and phenotypically characterize Escherichia coli from avian organic fertilizer. Sixty-four E. coli isolates were identified from avian organic fertilizer and characterized for ExPEC virulence factors, pathogenicity islands, phylogenetic groups, antimicrobial resistance, biofilm formation, and adhesion to HEp-2 cells. Sixty-three isolates (98.4%) showed at least one virulence gene (fimH, ecpA, sitA, traT, iutA, iroN, hlyF, ompT and iss). The predominant phylogenetic groups were groups A (59.3%) and B1 (34.3%). The pathogenicity island CFT073II (51.5%) was the most prevalent among the isolates tested. Thirty-two isolates (50%) were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent. Approximately 90% of isolates adhered to HEp-2 cells, and the predominant pattern was aggregative adherence (74.1%). In the biofilm assay, it was observed that 75% of isolates did not produce biofilm. These results lead us to conclude that some E. coli isolates from avian organic fertilizer could be pathogenic for humans.
The Brazilian poultry industry generates large amounts of organic waste, such as chicken litter, which is often used in agriculture. Among the bacteria present in organic fertilizer are members of the Enterobacteriaceae family. The objective of this study was to detect the presence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) strains in avian organic fertilizer, and assess the potential damage they can cause in humans due to antimicrobial resistance. The presence of DEC pathotypes and phylogenetic groups were detected by multiplex-PCR. Phenotypic assays, such as tests for adhesion, cytotoxicity activity, biofilm formation and especially antimicrobial susceptibility, were performed. Fifteen DEC strains from 64 E. coli were isolated. Among these, four strains were classified as enteropathogenic (EPEC; 6.2%), three strains as Shiga toxin-producing (STEC; 4.7%), 10 strains as enteroaggregative (EAEC; 12.5%), but two of these harbored the eaeA gene too. The low number of isolated strains was most likely due to the composting process, which reduces the number of microorganisms. These strains were able to adhere to HEp-2 and HeLa cells and produce Shiga-toxins and biofilms; in addition, some of the strains showed antimicrobial resistance, which indicates a risk of the transfer of resistance genes to human E. coli. These results showed that DEC strains isolated from avian organic fertilizers can cause human infections.
The use of antimicrobials in fish farming is a reflection of the fast aquaculture development worldwide. The intensification of aquaculture to achieve market demands could lead to an increase in infectious diseases by pathogenic bacteria. Consequently, antimicrobials act as controls for emerging infectious diseases, but their use must follow the rules and regulations of the country where the activity is performed. Although the regulations impose limits to the use of antimicrobials in fish farming, many studies show that resistant bacteria are isolated from this system. The selection of resistant bacteria is not limited only to the use of antimicrobials, but also to co-selection of resistance genes or even with cross-resistance processes. Resistant bacteria from fish farming are a serious concern because they can be acquired by humans with handling or food chain, which may represent a public health problem. In the present review, we present an overview of antimicrobials use in aquaculture, the antimicrobial resistance and the impact of antimicrobial and bacterial resistance from a public health perspective.
It is known that chicken litter is home to many pathogenic and antimicrobial resistant bacteria, and in many cases, it is reused without prior treatment in the creation of subsequent batches. Thus, the work aimed to verify whether Escherichia coli strains that produce Extended Spectrum Beta-lactamases (ESBL) isolated from chicken beds in the state of Paraná, were able to transfer their genes to E. coli isolates from the intestinal microbiota of one day old chicks. For this study, four strains of E. coli producing ESBL were used, presenting the blaCTX-M1 gene isolated from chicken litter, to be the plasmid donors, and three strains isolated from chicks newly arrived at the shed, which showed resistance to only gentamicin. For the conjugation assays, the donor and recipient strains were used in a proportion of 1: 2 respectively, and the transconjugants selected for resistance to gentamicin and cefotaxime in specific concentrations. Transconjugant colonies were selected and their phylogenetic groups identified by the PCR technique. Of the 12 conjugations performed, three presented transconjugants harboring the blaCTX-M1 gene, indicating that there is a possibility that this gene could be transferred to E. coli of the microbiota. Thus, in the environment of the farms, the transmission of plasmids of resistance from bacteria present in the chicken litter to bacteria from the microbiota of the newly arrived chicks may occur. The fact that chicken litter is reused without proper treatment contributes to the maintenance and dissemination of genetic determinants for ESBL in broiler chickens.
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