urum wheat (DW), Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum (Desf.) Husn., genome BBAA, is a cereal grain mainly used for pasta production and evolved from domesticated emmer wheat (DEW), T. turgidum ssp. dicoccum (Schrank ex Schübl.) Thell. DEW itself derived from wild emmer wheat (WEW), T. turgidum ssp. dicoccoides (Körn. ex Asch. & Graebn.
BackgroundMethods for the integrative analysis of multi-omics data are required to draw a more complete and accurate picture of the dynamics of molecular systems. The complexity of biological systems, the technological limits, the large number of biological variables and the relatively low number of biological samples make the analysis of multi-omics datasets a non-trivial problem.Results and ConclusionsWe review the most advanced strategies for integrating multi-omics datasets, focusing on mathematical and methodological aspects.
PURPOSE Recurrently mutated genes and chromosomal abnormalities have been identified in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). We aim to integrate these genomic features into disease classification and prognostication. METHODS We retrospectively enrolled 2,043 patients. Using Bayesian networks and Dirichlet processes, we combined mutations in 47 genes with cytogenetic abnormalities to identify genetic associations and subgroups. Random-effects Cox proportional hazards multistate modeling was used for developing prognostic models. An independent validation on 318 cases was performed. RESULTS We identify eight MDS groups (clusters) according to specific genomic features. In five groups, dominant genomic features include splicing gene mutations ( SF3B1, SRSF2, and U2AF1) that occur early in disease history, determine specific phenotypes, and drive disease evolution. These groups display different prognosis (groups with SF3B1 mutations being associated with better survival). Specific co-mutation patterns account for clinical heterogeneity within SF3B1- and SRSF2-related MDS. MDS with complex karyotype and/or TP53 gene abnormalities and MDS with acute leukemia–like mutations show poorest prognosis. MDS with 5q deletion are clustered into two distinct groups according to the number of mutated genes and/or presence of TP53 mutations. By integrating 63 clinical and genomic variables, we define a novel prognostic model that generates personally tailored predictions of survival. The predicted and observed outcomes correlate well in internal cross-validation and in an independent external cohort. This model substantially improves predictive accuracy of currently available prognostic tools. We have created a Web portal that allows outcome predictions to be generated for user-defined constellations of genomic and clinical features. CONCLUSION Genomic landscape in MDS reveals distinct subgroups associated with specific clinical features and discrete patterns of evolution, providing a proof of concept for next-generation disease classification and prognosis.
We present here a new algorithm for functional site analysis. It is based on four main assumptions: each variation of nucleotide composition makes a different contribution to the overall binding free energy of interaction between a functional site and another molecule; nonfunctioning site-like regions (pseudosites) are absent or rare in genomes; there may be errors in the sample of sites; and nucleotides of different site positions are considered to be mutually dependent. In this algorithm, the site set is divided into subsets, each described by a certain consensus. Donor splice sites of the human protein-coding genes were analyzed. Comparing the results with other methods of donor splice site prediction has demonstrated a more accurate prediction of consensus sequences AG/GU(A,G), G/GUnAG, /GU(A,G)AG, /GU(A,G)nGU, and G/GUA than is achieved by weight matrix and consensus (A,C)AG/GU(A,G)AGU with mismatches. The probability of the first type error, E1, for the obtained consensus set was about 0.05, and the probability of the second type error, E2, was 0.15. The analysis demonstrated that accuracy of the functional site prediction could be improved if one takes into account correlations between the site positions. The accuracy of prediction by using human consensus sequences was tested on sequences from different organisms. Some differences in consensus sequences for the plant Arabidopsis sp., the invertebrate Caenorhabditis sp., and the fungus Aspergillus sp. were revealed. For the yeast Saccharomyces sp. only one conservative consensus, /GUA(U,A,C)G(U,A,C), was revealed (E1 = 0.03, E2 = 0.03). Yeast is a very interesting model to use for analysis of molecular mechanisms of splicing.
Two mutations in the MYBPC3 gene have been identified in Maine Coon (MCO) and Ragdoll (RD) cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM).
The present study examines the frequency of these mutations and of the A74T polymorphism to describe their worldwide distribution and correlation with echocardiography.
1855 cats representing 28 breeds and random bred cats world-wide of which 446 underwent echocardiographic examination.
This is a prospective cross sectional study. Polymorphisms were genotyped using Illumina VeraCode GoldenGate or by direct sequencing. The disease status was defined by echocardiography according to established guidelines. Odds ratios for the joint probability of having HCM and the alleles were calculated by meta-analysis. Functional analysis was simulated.
The MYBPC3 A31P and R820W were restricted to MCO and RD respectively. Both purebred and random bred cats had HCM and the incidence increased with age. The A74T polymorphism was not associated with any phenotype. HCM was most prevalent in MCO homozygote for the A31P mutation and the penetrance increased with age. The penetrance of the heterozygote genotype was lower (0.08) compared to the P/P genotype (0.58) in MCO.
Conclusions and Clinical Importance
A31P mutation occurs frequently in MCO cats. The high incidence of HCM in homozygotes for the mutation supports the causal nature of the A31P mutation. Penetrance is incomplete for heterozygotes at A31P locus, at least at a young age. The A74T variant does not appear to be correlated with HCM.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.