The objective of this study was to investigate the frequency of occurrence and variety of intestinal parasites among free-living wild animals. Fecal samples from wild mammals and birds at rehabilitation centers in the states of Mato Grosso do Sul and São Paulo were analyzed by sedimentation and flotation-centrifugation methods. Parasite eggs, oocysts, cysts and/or trophozoites were found in 71% of the samples. Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts were detected in fecal samples from oncillas (Leopardus tigrinus) and scaly-headed parrots (Pionus maximiliani). Giardia cysts were identified in the feces of a gray brocket (Mazama gouazoubira). Among the most common parasites found, there were eggs from Toxocara cati, Toxascaris leonina and Ancylostoma tubaeforme, and from Cestoda. Several Enterobius sp. eggs were found in the feces of red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus). It can be concluded from this study that despite the small number of samples, the diversity of parasites found was noteworthy. Additional information about parasite endofauna in wild animals is needed, since their presence might suggest that there could be proximity to and interactions with domestic animals and/or humans. In addition, further studies on parasites from free-living wild animals are of prime importance for understanding the intensity of anthropic changes in wild environments.
The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of Cryptosporidium in cattle and sheep from the North Pioneer mesoregion of the state of Paraná. For this, 317 stool samples were collected from cattle and sheep on 16 properties in six municipalities in the North Pioneer mesoregion of Paraná. For detection of Cryptosporidium species, molecular analysis was performed using nested-PCR techniques targeting the 18S rRNA gene. Of the 37 beef cows and 115 calves analyzed, four (10.8%) and 14 (12.2%), respectively, were positive for Cryptosporidium. Of the 12 cows and 52 calves, one (8.3%) and 14 (26.9%), respectively, were positive for Cryptosporidium; and of the 42 ewes and 59 lambs, six (14.3%) and 12 (20.3%), respectively were positive for Cryptosporidium. Cattle (15.3%) and sheep (17.8%) were both susceptible to infection. All the properties of the municipalities of Assaí, Ibaiti and, Leópolis presented infected animals. The study showed that Cryptosporidium occurs in most municipalities assessed, that dairy calves had a higher risk (Odds Ratio=2,66, p-value=0,018) for infection than beef calves, and that sheep are just as susceptible to infection as are cattle, and that further Cryptosporidium studies are developed.
The anthelmintic efficiency of doramectin, fenbendazole, and nitroxynil, used individually or in combination, was determined by the Fecal Egg Count Reduction (FECR) test and cultivation of larvae of anthelminthic-treated sheep grouped as follows: G1 (doramectin), G2 (fenbendazole), G3 (nitroxynil), G4 (doramectin + fenbendazole), G5 (doramectin + nitroxynil), G6 (fenbendazole + nitroxynil), G7 (doramectin + nitroxynil + fenbendazole), G8 (untreated). In addition to individually used doramectin and fenbendazole, the helminths were also resistant to the combination of doramectin + fenbendazole; nitroxynil + fenbendazole; and doramectin + nitroxynil + fenbendazole, with their FECR rates ranging from 62-83%. The helminths showed possible nitroxynil-resistance, but had low resistance when the drug was administered in combination with doramectin. The evaluation of individual helminth species revealed that fenbendazole was fully effective against Cooperia; doramectin (G1), moderately effective against Haemonchus and insufficiently active against Cooperia; nitroxynil, effective against Haemonchus and insufficiently active against Cooperia. It was concluded from the results that herd nematodes are resistant to doramectin, fenbendazole, and nitroxynil, and that the combined use of the drugs not only fails to significantly improve the anthelmintic efficiency against Haemonchus and Cooperia, but is also cost-ineffective.Keywords: Parasitic resistance, Haemonchus, Cooperia, small ruminants, anthelmintic association. ResumoEficiências da doramectina, fenbendazole e nitroxynil, utilizados individualmente ou associadamente, foram determinadas através do Teste de Redução na Contagem de Ovos nas Fezes (RCOF) e cultivo de larvas. Os grupos experimentais foram os seguintes: G1 (ovinos tratados com doramectina), G2 (fenbendazole), G3 (nitroxynil), G4 (doramectina + fenbendazole), G5 (doramectina + nitroxynil), G6 (fenbendazole + nitroxynil), G7 (doramectina + fenbendazole + nitroxynil) e G8, não tratados. Os helmintos foram considerados resistentes a doramectina e ao fenbendazole isoladamente e às associações doramectina + fenbendazole, fenbendazole + nitroxynil, e doramectina + fenbendazole + nitroxynil, com taxas de RCOF variando de 62-83%. Helmintos foram considerados suspeitos de resistência ao nitroxynil e apresentaram baixa resistência, quando esta droga foi associada à doramectina. Dos tratamentos isolados, o fenbendazole demonstrou total eficácia (100%) contra Cooperia. Doramectina (G1) foi moderadamente efetiva contra Haemonchus e insuficientemente ativa contra Cooperia, e o nitroxynil efetivo contra Haemonchus (93,2%) e insuficientemente ativo contra Cooperia (0%). Concluiu-se neste estudo que os nematódeos do rebanho são resistentes à doramectina, fenbendazole e nitroxynil, e que, ainda que associadas, não devem ser utilizadas no rebanho por não melhorarem a eficiência anti-helmíntica nem a efetividade contra Haemonchus e Cooperia e por não apresentarem custo-benefício justificado.
Morro do Diabo State Park (MDSP) is a significant remnant of the Atlantic Rain Forest in Brazil and is surrounded by rural properties. In that area, wild and domestic animals and humans are in close contact, which facilitates the two-way flow of infectious diseases among them. We assessed endoparasites in domestic livestock from all rural properties surrounding MDSP. There were sampled 197 cattle, 37 horses, 11 sheep, 25 swine, 21 dogs, one cat and 62 groups of chickens from 10 large private properties and 75 rural settlements. Eimeria spp. was present in almost all hosts, excepted in horses, dogs and cats. Giardia cysts were present only in cattle. Nematodes were found in swine, ruminants and horses in high prevalence. Ancylostoma, Toxocara and Sarcocystis were found in dogs. Chickens were found with coccidia, Ascaridida and Capillaria spp.. These parasites can cause malnutrition and reproductive disorders for their hosts. Strategies to prevent and control the spread of endoparasites can improve wildlife, animal and human health in this area.Keywords: Helminths, protozoan, Morro do Diabo State Park, wildlife conservation, rural settlements, Brazil. ResumoO Parque Estadual Morro do diabo (PEMD) é um significante remanescente de Mata Atlântica no Brasil, e rodeado de propriedades rurais. Nesta área humanos, animais domésticos e silvestres vivem próximos, o que facilita o fluxo de agentes infecciosas entre eles. Nós avaliamos a presença de endoparasitas, por meio de exame coproparasitológico dos animais domésticos de todas as propriedades rurais do entorno do PEMD. Foram amostrados 197 bovinos, 37 equinos, 11 ovinos, 25 suínos, 62 grupos de galinhas, 22 cães e 1 gato, residentes em 10 grandes propriedades privadas e 75 assentamentos rurais. Eimeria spp. estava presente em quase todas as espécies hospedeiras, com excessão de equinos, cães e gatos. Cistos de Giardia estavam presentes somente em bovinos. Nematodes foram encontrados em suínos, ruminantes e equinos em alta prevalência. Ancylostoma, Toxocara e Sarcocystis foram encontrados em cães. Galinhas foram encontradas com coccidia, Ascaridida e Capillaria spp.. Os parasitas encontrados podem causar má nutrição e problemas reprodutivos para seus hospedeiros. Medidas de prevenção e controle da dispersão de endoparasitas podem melhorar a condição de saúde pública, animal e ambiental nesta área.Palavras-chave: Helmintos, protozoários, Parque Estadual Morro do Diabo, conservação ambiental, assentamentos rurais, Brasil.
The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of ivermectin (3.15%) on gastrointestinal nematodes found in calves through the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT), and larval culture in 16 animals from a school farm at the Universidade Estadual do Norte do Paraná. The animals were divided into two experimental groups: animals treated with ivermectin 3.15% (G1 group) and control animals (G2 group). Stool samples were collected from the animals twice i.e., on days 0 and 10 for fecal examinations. There was no significant change in the egg count per gram of feces (EPG) in both the groups. Helminths were found to be resistant to ivermectin (3.15%), due to the observed 5.62% FECRT rate. Cooperia was found to be the dominant nematode larvae present (53% on day 10 day and 8% in day 0), while Trichostrongylus was detected in small numbers (0% on day 0 to 1 % on day 10). The drug was found to be effective only in Trichuris, while the same was inefficient against Haemonchus and Cooperia, although Trichostrongylus and Oesophagostomum were found to be 100 % resistant. Therefore, the findings of this study suggest that ivermectin 3.15% should not be used for the control of nematodes in calves, since most of the parasites demonstrated drug resistance. This is the first report on the resistance of Haemonchus, Cooperia, Trichostrongylus, and Oesophagostomum in cattle to ivermectin 3.15% in the state of Paraná. Key words: Anthelmintic resistance, bovine, macrocyclic lactone ResumoObjetivou-se, neste estudo, analisar o efeito da ivermectina (3,15%) sobre nematódeos gastrointestinais de bezerros com aptidão leiteira por meio do Teste de Redução na Contagem de Ovos nas Fezes (RCOF) e da cultura de larvas em 16 animais da Fazenda Escola da Universidade Estadual do Norte do Paraná. Para tanto, dois grupos experimentais foram formados: animais tratados com ivermectina 3,15% (grupo G1) e grupo controle (Grupo G2). Foram coletadas amostras de fezes dos animais em dois momentos, ou seja, nos dias 0 e 10 para realização dos exames coproparasitológicos. Não houve alteração significativa na contagem de ovos nas fezes (OPG) em ambos os grupos. Os helmintos foram considerados resistentes à ivermectina 3,15%, já que a taxa de RCOF foi de 5,62%. O gênero de nematódeo mais observado na cultura de larvas foi Cooperia (53% no dia 10 a 88% no dia zero) e o menos foi Trichostrongylus (0% no dia zero a 1% no dia 10). Observou-se eficiência apenas sobre o gênero Trichuris e ineficiência sobre os gêneros Haemonchus e Cooperia e ainda 100% de resistência dos gêneros Oesophagostomum e Trichostrongylus. Concluiu-se neste estudo que a ivermectina 3,15% não deve ser indicada no controle de
The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii and compare the results obtained in the Modiϐied Agglutination Test (MAT), Polimerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and bioassay in mice. In order to accomplish this, 40 free-range chickens from eight farms in neighboring areas to the Pantanal in Nhecolândia, Mato Grosso do Sul, were euthanized and blood samples, brain and heart were collected. The occurrence of anti-T. gondii antibodies found in chickens was 67.5% (27 samples), considering as a cutoff point the dilution 1:5. Among the samples analyzed, 7 (25.9%) were positive in the dilution 1:5, 3 (11.1%) in 1:10, 2 (7.4%) in 1:20, 3 (11.1%) in 1:320, 1 ( 3.7%) in 1:640, 3 (11.1%) in 1:1280, 2 (7.4%) in 1:2560, 4 (14.8%) in 1:5120 and 2 (7.4%) in 1:10.240. From the mixture of tissue samples (brain and heart) from the chickens analyzed, 16 (40%) presented electrophoretic bands compatible with T. gondii by PCR (gene B1). In the comparison of techniques, 59.26% positivity in PCR was revealed among animals that were seropositive in MAT (cutoff 1:5). From 141 inoculated mice, six (4.44%) died of acute toxoplasmosis between 15 and 23 days after inoculation. Surviving mice were sacriϐiced at 74 days after inoculation, and a total of 28 cysts were found in the brains of 10 distinct groups. From the seropositive hens, 27 bioassays were performed and 11 (40.7%) isolates were obtained. A greater number of isolations happened in mice that were inoculated with tissues from chickens that had high titers for anti-T. gondii antibodies. Chronic infection in mice was observed in nine groups (33.3%) from ϐive different properties. Among the surviving mice, 25.6% were positive for T. gondii in MAT (1:25). From mice positive in PCR, 87.5% were also positive in MAT. Among the PCR-negative mice, 5.2% were positive for T. gondii in MAT. It can be concluded through this study that the occurrence of infecton by T. gondii in the rural properties studied was high, that PCR directed to gene B1 does not conϐirm the viability of the parasite, but it can be used as a screening method for the selection of chickens infected by T. gondii, that the animals with titer greater than 10 must be prioritized for the selection of animals for bioassay, since for them, the chances of isolating the parasite are greater and that seroconversion in experimentally infected mice is not a good indicator for isolating the agent.
Primary hypoparathyroidism is an uncommon endocrinopathy in dogs, resulting from absolute or relative deficiency in the secretion of parathormone (PTH). The dog presented signs of hypocalcemia, including muscular spasms, tetany and cramps, evolving to tonic-clonic seizures and fever. Emergency therapy for hypocalcemia included glucose physiological solution at 0.45% and calcium gluconate administered intravenously. Diagnosis was confirmed by the presence of hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia and a decrease in parathormone (PTH).Keywords: dog, parathyroid, hypocalcemia, PTH RESUMO O hipoparatireoidismo primário é uma endocrinopatia incomum em cães, resultante da deficiência absoluta ou relativa na secreção do paratormônio (PTH). O cão apresentava sinais de hipocalcemia, incluindo espasmos musculares, tetania e cãibras que evoluíram para convulsões tônico-clônicas e febre.A terapia de emergência para hipocalcemia incluiu solução glicofisiológica 0,45% e gluconato de cálcio por intravenosa. O diagnóstico foi confirmado pela presença de hipocalcemia, hiperfosfatemia e diminuição do paratormônio (PTH). Palavras-chave: paratireoide, hipocalcemia, cão, PTH
The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-helminthic effect of a commercial formulation Bioverm® (Duddingtonia flagrans) in 28 sheep naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. Animals were classified into two groups: G1 (n=14) treated with nematophagous fungi and G2 (n=14) untreated control. The efficacy of the anti-helminthic drug was assessed based on the egg count per gram of feces (EPG) of strongyles, larval culture, hemogram, leukogram, plasma protein levels, mucosal coloration using the FAMACHA© method, animals body weight, and evaluating the ocular mucosa for the FAMACHA© anemia guide were performed at days 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180. Additionally, the nematode larvae were quantified in the dry matter of the pastures of both groups. Results showed that the EPG was significantly decreased in animals receiving nematophagous fungi from D30 until the experiment end. The most common nematode genus was Haemonchus (63%), followed by Cooperia (23%) and Trichostrongylus (15%). Based on the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT), treated animals showed a reduction of fecal egg count of 58.9%, 8.6, 92.8%, 96.4%, and 96.2%, at D30, D60, D90, D120, and D180, respectively. The absolute values of red blood cells and leukocytes were significantly increased at D60 and D90, respectively, in the treated animals. A significant weight gain was observed in the treated ewes at the end of the experiment; however, there was no correlation between the EPGs values and hematocrit with the FAMACHA© degrees of animals in both experimental groups. The mean EPG of both groups and the number of infectious larvae in the pastures were not directly proportional. In conclusion, nematophagous fungi contributed to decreased parasitic load in sheep, and consequently, improve animal performance; they can be a suitable alternative to reduce problems associated with nematode infections.
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