Water is an indispensable resource for the maintenance of life; however, the available volume for consumption has decreased over a period of life, as a result of which, the availability of water that is inferior in quality has increased. In this context, we aimed to evaluate the growth and yield of okra (Santa Cruz cultivar) under different nitrogen rates and irrigation facilities using post-treated domestic wastewater through sand filter with intermittent flow in a Brazilian semiarid region. The experiment was performed in the Pombal region of the Paraíba state, Brazil using a randomized block design with six nitrogen Rates (N 1 = 0, N 2 = 40, N 3 = 80, N 4 = 120, N 5 = 160, and N 6 = 200 kg ha -1 ) and irrigation by using wastewater. The water was added to the treatment with 100% (160 kg ha -1 ) using nitrogen fertilization recommendation and irrigation water supply. The effects of treatments on the growth and production variables of okra plants were evaluated.
The objectives of the present study were to morphologically characterize the seeds, study post-seminal development, and report the best treatment to overcoming dormancy of colubrina (Colubrina glandulosa Perkins). Eight replicates of 100 seeds were weighed and the length, width, and thickness of each seed were measured for the physical characterization. External and internal aspects were considered for the morphological description of the seeds. Seven pre-germination treatments were used to overcoming dormancy: (T 1) intact seeds; immersion in sulfuric acid for 60 (T 2) and 90 min (T 3); (T 4) manual scarification in the region opposite the hilum; (T 5) immersion in water at 80°C, followed by standing in the same water outside the heat for 24 hours at room temperature; and immersion in distilled water for 24 (T 6) and 48 hours (T 7). The germinative process was recorded for 19 days in the post-seminal study. The variables analyzed were germination, first count, speed, average germination time, germination uncertainty and synchrony, seedling length, and dry mass. This was a completely randomized designed study, with four replicates of 25 seeds in each treatment. The seeds were morphologically highly variable. The testal and the embryo were the invaginated type. Germination was epigeal and the phanerocotyledonal type. Manual scarification induced maximum germinability in the mean time, resulting in a unimodal distribution of the relative frequency and high synchronization of germination, which allowed for the maximum number of highly vigorous seedlings. These results indicate a treatment for overcoming dormancy in C. glandulosa.
Licuri (Syagrus coronata (Mart.) Becc.) is an ornamental palm tree native of Brazil with great economic potential, because it provides raw material for manufacturing a wide range of products. The objective of this study was to assess the morphology of the fruits, diaspores, seeds, seedlings, and saplings of Syagrus coronata. The study was performed at the Laboratory of Seed Analysis (LSA) of the Federal Rural University of Pernambuco/Academic Unit of Garanhuns-PE, by using licuri fruits collected from the rural area of Caetés-PE. It was evaluated fruit morphology, diaspores, seeds, seedlings and saplings. Germination, in the form of cotyledon petiole emergence, began 15 days after sowing, is hypogeal, cryptocotylar, and remote tubular. It is slow and uneven, extending up to 60 days after the first eophyll appears. The saplings have alternate, pinnate, glabrous, entire leaves with parallel venation and sheath invagination. The primary roots persistent, the secondary roots arise from the stem root node in the primary root, and lateral roots only fasciculate was evidenced when the change was 300 days, and must remain in the nursery for at least 360 days after germination before taking it to the field, due to the slow development of this species.
<p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align: justify; mso-layout-grid-align: none; text-autospace: none;"><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 11.0pt; line-height: 107%; font-family: 'Arial',sans-serif;">O trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de caracterizar a qualidade fisiológica de sementes crioulas de feijão comum cultivadas nos municípios de São João-PE, Lajedo-PE, Caetés-PE e União dos Palmares-AL. As sementes foram doadas por agricultores familiares das respectivas cidades. O trabalho foi conduzido no Laboratório de Propagação de Plantas pertencente ao Centro de Ciências Agrárias (CECA), Campus Delza Gitaí, da Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL). Os parâmetros avaliados foram: teor de água (TA), peso de mil sementes (PMS), primeira contagem de emergência (PCE), emergência (EMER) de plântulas, índice de velocidade de emergência (IVE), comprimento da parte aérea (PA) e raiz e massa seca de plântulas. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições de 50 sementes por tratamento. As variedades crioulas de feijão comum apresentam percentual de emergência acima dos padrões mínimos exigidos para comercialização. O lote de sementes proveniente de São João-PE apresentou qualidade fisiológica superior em relação aos demais municípios.</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align: justify; mso-layout-grid-align: none; text-autospace: none;"> </p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: normal;"><strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 11.0pt; font-family: 'Arial',sans-serif;">Palavras-chave: </span></strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 11.0pt; font-family: 'Arial',sans-serif;">Agricultura familiar, <em>Phaseolus vulgaris </em>L., produção, germinação, vigor</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align: center;" align="center"> </p>
The maricá (Mimosa bimucronata (DC) O. Kuntze) is a forest species, belonging to the family Fabaceae, considered endemic to the Atlantic Forest biome. The present work aimed to study the germinative behavior of M. bimucronata seeds under different temperatures and light qualities, as well as to evaluate the effect of the amount of water (humidity) in the substrate and the osmoconditioning during germination. Thus, the experiment was performed using a completely randomized design. The treatments were distributed in a 4 × 4 factorial scheme (temperatures and light qualities), with 4 replicates of 25 seeds each. The means were compared by Tukey's test at 5% probability. The volume of water and osmoconditioning of substrate was evaluated and data were subjected to regression analysis. The following variables were analyzed: first count of germinated seeds, germination, germination speed index, and electrical conductivity. The results revealed that seeds are neutral photoblasts, needing a constant temperature of 30 °C along with a white light for appropriate germination and vigor. Seeding on two sheets of paper towel moistened with water volume (mL) from 2.62 to 2.70 times was more suitable for conducting the germination test. The osmotic conditioning was inefficient in maintaining germination of these seeds.
Nowadays, the search for increase in the crop productivity with high organoleptic, physical and physiological quality of seeds remains one of the main objectives. Considering the importance of peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) for Brazilian agriculture and for the production of seeds, it is indispensable to use technological innovations aiming at the advancement of productivity and profitability for the seed producer. This study aimed to evaluate the yield and the components of peanut seed production of cultivar BR1, subjected to the foliar and seed application of Ca + B, Mo + P and Stimulate®. The design was randomized blocks with the use of three products (Ca + B, Mo + P, Stimulate ®), two types of applications (via foliar and seed), the PK culture, and the absolute control, following a factorial scheme of [(3 × 2) + 2]. The doses of 2.0 mL/kg (Ca + B), 1.6 mL/kg (Mo + P), and 15 mL/kg (Stimulate ®) via seeds were indicated the best for the development of the peanut crop due to its profitability and efficiency. The application of Ca + B, Mo + P, and Stimulate ® via seeds is beneficial for the initial counting, emergence, emergence speed index, biological productivity, pod production, seed production and leaf area.
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