The photocatalytic degradation of cyanotoxins in aqueous solutions using slurry suspensions of TiO2 implies a post-filtration step to retain the photocatalyst. In this work, 2D and 3D TiO2 thin films sup-ported in inert surfaces was proposed for the solar photocatalytic removal of cyanotoxins microcystin-LR (MC-LR) or cylindrospermopsin (CYN) in distilled and natural water under neutral pH conditions. The photocatalytic experiments were performed in a lab-scale tubular photoreactor with a compound parabolic collector (CPC) using simulated and natural solar radiation. The tubular photoreactor was packed with transparent cellulose acetate monoliths (CAM) coated with a P25 paste or sol-gel 2D TiO2 film or with a photocatalytic 3D TiO2-loaded exterior paint (PC500, VLP7000 and P25). The efficiency of the TiO2 photocatalytic system in the presence of hydrogen peroxide was also assessed. PVC or glass tubes and glass spheres, coated with a photocatalytic 3D TiO2-loaded exterior paint, were also tested as inert surfaces. The supports used in this work were chosen according to some characteristics, such as cost, surface resistance, surface area and transmissibility to UV radiation. The 2 toxins MC-LR and CYN were purified from Microcysts aeruginosa and Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii cultures, respectively. The photocatalytic system P25-CAM/H2O2 can be considered the most effective process, considering the cyanotoxins removal efficiency, the cost and the simplicity of the preparation.
The aim of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of use of flavored pineapple waste flour in cookies. Flours were produced at different temperatures and a sensory test was performed to choose which of them most retained the natural flavor. After choosing the ideal drying temperature, a physicochemical characterization was done with analysis of moisture, ash, soluble solids, pH, water activity and color, all in triplicate. Pineapple flavor was then added at concentrations of 0.5% and 1% and one remained as a control (no added flavor). Three cookie biscuit formulations were made, one with each batch of flour. Sensory analysis was performed by preference ordering and ideal scale tests. There was no statistically significant difference regarding natural flavor intensity of dried flours at 60°C, 70°C and 80°C, with the choice of 70°C. Results of flours physicochemical analysis presented following values: for soluble solids 56 ° Brix; pH 4.73; water activity 0.24; moisture 17.52%; ashes 2.10%. Color analysis showed positive values for b * coordinate (yellow). Results of sensorial tests show that there was a significant difference regarding the intensity of the pineapple aroma and flavor between samples with incorporation of 0.5% and 1% of flavor, differing from the control sample. Flavored samples were the most preferred ones and the one with 0.5% of addition was found to be ideal. Results show that the use of pineapple residue flour has good acceptance and great technological potential in the development of new functional food products, adding nutritional value to the preparation.
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