Vascular calcification is a cardiovascular risk factor and accelerated in diabetes mellitus. Previous work has established a role for calcification-prone extracellular vesicles in promoting vascular calcification. However, the mechanisms by which diabetes mellitus provokes cardiovascular events remain incompletely understood. Our goal was to identify that increased S100A9 promotes the release of calcification-prone extracellular vesicles from human macrophages in diabetes mellitus.
Approach and Results:
Human primary macrophages exposed to high glucose (25 mmol/L) increased S100A9 secretion and the expression of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) protein. Recombinant S100A9 induced the expression of proinflammatory and osteogenic factors, as well as the number of extracellular vesicles with high calcific potential (alkaline phosphatase activity,
<0.001) in macrophages. Treatment with a RAGE antagonist or silencing with S100A9 siRNA in macrophages abolished these responses, suggesting that stimulation of the S100A9-RAGE axis by hyperglycemia favors a procalcific environment. We further showed that an imbalance between Nrf-2 (nuclear factor 2 erythroid related factor 2) and NF-κB (nuclear factor-κB) pathways contributes to macrophage activation and promotes a procalcific environment. In addition, streptozotocin-induced diabetic Apoe
mice and mice treated with S100a9 siRNA encapsulated in macrophage-targeted lipid nanoparticles showed decreased inflammation and microcalcification in atherosclerotic plaques, as gauged by molecular imaging and comprehensive histological analysis. In human carotid plaques, comparative proteomics in patients with diabetes mellitus and histological analysis showed that the S100A9-RAGE axis associates with osteogenic activity and the formation of microcalcification.
Under hyperglycemic conditions, macrophages release calcific extracellular vesicles through mechanisms involving the S100A9-RAGE axis, thus contributing to the formation of microcalcification within atherosclerotic plaques.
BackgroundWhile the macrophage polarization is well characterized in helminth infections, the natural heterogeneity of monocytes with multiple cell phenotypes might influence the outcome of neglected diseases, such hookworm infection. Here, we report the profile of monocytes in human hookworm infections as a model to study the regulatory subpopulation of monocytes in helminth infections.MethodsBlood samples were collected from 19 Necator americanus-infected individuals and 13 healthy individuals. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated, and immunophenotyping was conducted by flow cytometry. The expressions of genes encoding human nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interleukin 4 (IL-4), arginase-1 (Arg-1) and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase were quantified by qPCR. Plasma levels of IL-4 were determined by sandwich ELISA. Unpaired t-tests or Mann-Whitney tests were used depending on the data distribution.ResultsHookworm infected individuals (HWI) showed a significant increase in the number of monocytes/mm3 (555.2 ± 191.0) compared to that of the non-infected (NI) individuals (120.4 ± 44.7) (p < 0.0001). While the frequencies of CD14+IL-10+ and CD14+IL-12+ cells were significantly reduced in the HWI compared to NI group (p = 0.0289 and p < 0.0001, respectively), the ratio between IL-10/IL-12 producing monocytes was significantly elevated in HWI (p = 0.0004), indicating the potential regulatory activity of these cells. Measurement of IL-4 levels and gene expression of IL-4 and Arg-1 (highly expressed in alternatively activated macrophages) revealed no significant differences between the NI and HWI groups. Interestingly, individuals from the HWI group had higher expression of the iNOS gene (associated with a regulatory profile) (20.27 ± 2.97) compared to the NI group (11.28 ± 1.18, p = 0.0409). Finally, individuals from the HWI group had a significantly higher frequency of CD206+CD23+IL-10+ (7.57 ± 1.96) cells compared to individuals from the NI group (0.35 ± 0.09) (p < 0.001), suggesting that activated monocytes are a potential source of regulatory cytokines during hookworm infection.ConclusionsNatural hookworm infection induces a high frequency of circulating monocytes that present a regulatory profile and promote the downmodulation of the proinflammatory response, which may contribute to prolonged survival of the parasite in the host.
Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) remains a major cause of preventable death and disability in children and young adults. Despite significant advances in medical technology and increased understanding of disease mechanisms, RHD continues to be a serious public health problem throughout the world, especially in low-and middle-income countries. Echocardiographic screening has played a key role in improving the accuracy of diagnosing RHD and has highlighted the disease burden. Most affected patients present with severe valve disease and limited access to life-saving cardiac surgery or percutaneous valve intervention, contributing to increased mortality and other complications. Although understanding of disease pathogenesis has advanced in recent years, key questions remain to be addressed. Preventing or providing early treatment for streptococcal infections is the most important step in reducing the burden of this disease.
with the frequency of CD8+ T cells in etosis, as well as the occurrence of CD8-derived LETs carrying CD107a+ vesicles in the lesions. We propose that CD8+ T cell derived LETs may serve as a tool for delivering cytotoxic vesicles to distant target cells, providing insights into mechanisms of CD8+ T cell mediated pathology.
Rheumatic heart valve disease (RHVD) is a post-infectious sequel of acute rheumatic fever resulting from an abnormal immune response to a streptococcal pharyngitis that triggers valvular damage. RHVD is the leading cause of cardiovascular death in children and young adults, mainly in women from low and middle-income countries. It is known that long-term inflammation and high degree of fibrosis leads to valve dysfunction due to anatomic disruption of the valve apparatus. However, since public and private investments in RHVD studies are practically inexistent the number of publications is scarce. This disease shows different natural history and clinical presentations as compared to other degenerative heart valve diseases. Although more than five decades passed after the pioneering studies on the pathogenesis of RHVD, it is still unclear how self-tolerance mechanisms fail in this disease, and how humoral and cellular inflammatory responses are interconnected. Despite that pathological mechanisms have been already proposed for RHVD, none of them are able to explain the preferential involvement of the mitral valve. This review focuses on pathophysiology and underlying mechanisms of RHVD.
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