Os objetivos deste trabalho foram identificar a principal categoria profissional exposta a risco biológico e os principais tipos de acidentes ocorridos entre trabalhadores da área de saúde, em Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ. A partir da análise das fichas de notificação de acidentes biológicos dos 183 profissionais acidentados entre janeiro de 2005 e setembro de 2005, observamos que a categoria profissional mais exposta foi a dos auxiliares/técnicos de enfermagem (54,1%), seguida pela dos acadêmicos de medicina e odontologia (10,4%). A ocorrência de acidentes com materiais perfurocortantes foi relacionada à manipulação frequente desses objetos e ao comportamento dos profissionais que utilizam práticas que oferecem riscos de acidentes com agulhas, tais como o descarte inadequado de objetos perfurocortantes.
Detection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) serological markers in dried blood spot (DBS) samples by enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) has not yet been fully optimized. In this study, the ability to detect three HBV markers (HBsAg, anti-HBc, and anti-HBs) was evaluated in DBS samples using a modified commercial ELISA. Matched serum and DBS samples were obtained from individuals with or without a past history of HBV infection. Sera samples were tested according to the manufacturer's instructions, but for DBS testing, paper diameters, elution buffer, volume of input sample, and cut-off values were evaluated to optimize the assay. Stability studies were done on DBS stored at for up to 180 days at different temperatures. The absorbance values that yielded the maximum sensitivity and specificity were determined based on the area under the ROC curve (AUROC) and chosen as the cut-off value. Using this parameter, sensitivity was 90.5%, 97.6%, and 78% for anti-HBc, HBsAg, anti-HBs assays, respectively. Specificity was 92.6%, 96.7%, and 97.3% for anti-HBc, HBsAg, and anti-HBs assays, respectively. HBV markers could be detected in DBS samples until 63 days after sample collection at most temperatures, but storage at -20°C yielded more consistent results. These results indicate that modified ELISA can be used to detect HBV markers in DBS samples, particularly if the samples are stored appropriately.
Viral hepatitis B and C virus (HBV and HCV) are responsible for the most of chronic liver disease worldwide and are transmitted by parenteral route, sexual and vertical transmission. One important measure to reduce the burden of these infections is the diagnosis of acute and chronic cases of HBV and HCV. In order to provide an effective diagnosis and monitoring of antiviral treatment, it is important to choose sensitive, rapid, inexpensive, and robust analytical methods. Primary diagnosis of HBV and HCV infection is made by using serological tests for detecting antigens and antibodies against these viruses. In order to confirm primary diagnosis, to quantify viral load, to determine genotypes and resistance mutants for antiviral treatment, qualitative and quantitative molecular tests are used. In this manuscript, we review the current serological and molecular methods for the diagnosis of hepatitis B and C.
In this report, we examine the adaptability of commercially available serological kits to detect antibodies markers for viral hepatitis in oral fluid samples. We also assessed the prevalence of hepatitis A, B, and C virusspecific antibodies, and
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