ABSTRACT. Reproduction and fertility life table of three aphid species (Macrosiphini) at different temperatures. Temperature is a key abiotic factor influencing the development and reproduction of aphids. The effect of temperature on the reproduction of three aphid species Aulacorthum solani (Kaltenbach), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Uroleucon ambrosiae (Thomas) (Aphididae, Macrosiphini) has been investigated and fertility life tables were determined. Nymphs were reared in climatic chambers at temperatures of 16, 19, 22, 25, and 28 ± 1ºC, RH 70 ± 10% and 12 h photophase. Female adult aphids developed at these temperatures were then used in experiments in which pre-reproductive and reproductive periods were evaluated every 24 h. In addition, the number of nymphs produced and longevity were determined at each temperature. The reproduction period of A. solani and M. euphorbiae decreased with increasing temperature, whereas that of U. ambrosiae was maintained between 19 and 25ºC. The total number of nymphs produced by the aphids decreased as the temperature increased. The longevities of A. solani and M. euphorbiae decreased with increasing temperature but remained stable for U. ambrosiae between 19 and 25ºC. The largest survival rate (l x ) and specific fertility (m x ) values were found at 16 and 22ºC for all three species. The most favourable temperature for reproduction of A. solani, M. euphorbiae and U. ambrosiae was 22ºC, as demonstrated by the l x and m x profiles, the high values of net reproductive rates and intrinsic rates of increase, and the short intervals between generation and doubling times.KEYWORDS. Aphids; growing parameters; intrinsic rate of increase; lettuce; longevity.RESUMO. Reprodução e tabela de vida de fertilidade de três espécies de afídeos (Macrosiphini) em diferentes temperaturas. A temperatura é o fator abiótico chave influenciando o desenvolvimento e a reprodução dos afídeos. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes temperaturas na reprodução, assim como determinar a tabela de vida de fertilidade de Aulacorthum solani (Kaltenbach), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) e Uroleucon ambrosiae (Thomas) (Aphididae, Macrosiphini). Ninfas foram mantidas em placas de Petri (15 cm de diâmetro), sobre disco foliar de alface, suportado por uma camada de solução ágar/ água a 1%, em câmaras climatizadas nas temperaturas de 16, 19, 22, 25 e 28±1ºC; UR de 70±10% e fotofase de 12 h, até atingirem o estágio adulto. Esses adultos foram avaliados nas mesmas temperaturas a cada 24 h sob microscópio estereoscópico quanto aos parâmetros reprodutivos e longevidade. O período reprodutivo de A. solani e M. euphorbiae foi decrescente com o aumento da temperatura. U. ambrosiae apresentou período reprodutivo estável de 19 a 25ºC. A produção total de ninfas das três espécies de pulgões foi decrescente com o aumento da temperatura. A longevidade de A. solani e M. euphorbiae foi decrescente com o aumento da temperatura. As maiores taxas de sobrevivência (lx) e fertilidade específica (mx) foram o...
-The suitability of Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas), Aulacorthum solani (Kaltenbach) and Acyrthosiphon kondoi Shinji (Hemiptera: Aphididae) as hosts for the aphid parasitoid Aphidius ervi Haliday was evaluated by assessing host size, host preference, and host quality. Tests were carried out in an environmental chamber at 22 ± 1 o C, 70 ± 10% RH and 12h photophase. Replicates (11) consisted of one 24h-old mated female of A. ervi without a previous oviposition experience. Female was released into a Petri dish (5 cm) with 20 2 nd and 3 rd instars of one of each aphid species tested on a leaf disc of the host plant onto a 1% water-agar layer. Parasitoid emergency was lower in A. kondoi (78.7%) compared to M. euphorbiae (92.2%) and A. solani (91.7%). Acyrthosiphon kondoi (0.36 mm) was the smallest host. The parasitoid showed preference (74.0% parasitism) for M. euphorbiae, the largest host (hind tibia length = 0.73 mm), which in turn yielded larger A. ervi females (0.75 mm).
Interspecific competition between parasitoid larvae may influence the size, structure, and stability of the population, leading to a reduction in total parasitism and thus restricting the pest control. Aphidius ervi (Haliday) and Praon volucre (Haliday) are endoparasitoids that possess a wide host range and present considerable potential for the biological control of the aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas). The larval competition between A. ervi and P. volucre, and the possible intrinsic competitive superiority of one of the parasitoids in M. euphorbiae, have been studied. In single parasitism experiments, mated parasitoid females (n=10) were maintained individually in contact with M. euphorbiae hosts (n=30) inside petri dishes containing lettuce leaf discs and maintained in environmental chamber at 22 ± 1°C, 70 ± 10% RH, and 12-h photophase. The multiple parasitism experiments consisted of exposing single parasitized aphids (n=120) to the second parasitoid species. Two oviposition events were performed with a 4-h interval between them, namely the following: sequence A (oviposition by A. ervi, followed by P. volucre) and sequence B (oviposition by P. volucre, followed by A. ervi). Oviposition sequence A generated 24 A. ervi and 55 P. volucre adults, whereas oviposition sequence B generated 23 and 49 adults. P. volucre is an intrinsically superior competitor compared with A. ervi, and the use of the two species simultaneously may result in competitive exclusion and influence the stability of the parasitoid population.
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