We have shown that the aged microenvironment increases melanoma metastasis, and decreases response to targeted therapy, and here we queried response to anti-PD1. We analyzed the relationship between age, response to anti-PD1, and prior therapy in 538 patients. We used mouse models of melanoma, to analyze the intratumoral immune microenvironment in young versus aged mice and confirmed our findings in human melanoma biopsies. Patients over the age of 60 responded more efficiently to anti-PD-1, and likelihood of response to anti-PD-1 increased with age, even when we controlled for prior MAPKi therapy. Placing genetically identical tumors in aged mice (52 weeks) significantly increased their response to anti-PD1 as compared with the same tumors in young mice (8 weeks). These data suggest that this increased response in aged patients occurs even in the absence of a more complex mutational landscape. Next, we found that young mice had a significantly higher population of regulatory T cells (Tregs), skewing the CD8:Treg ratio. FOXP3 staining of human melanoma biopsies revealed similar increases in Tregs in young patients. Depletion of Tregs using anti-CD25 increased the response to anti-PD1 in young mice. While there are obvious limitations to our study, including our inability to conduct a meta-analysis due to a lack of available data, and our inability to control for mutational burden, there is a remarkable consistency in these data from over 500 patients across 8 different institutes worldwide. These results stress the importance of considering age as a factor for immunotherapy response. .
We characterize one transcription factor of DRE-binding proteins (TaDREB1) that was isolated from a drought-induced cDNA library of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). TaDREB1 contains one conserved EREBP/AP2 domain, and shows similarity with Arabidopsis thaliana DREB family members in both overall amino-acid sequences and the secondary structure arrangement within the DNA-binding motifs. In yeast one-hybrid system, TaDREB1, can specially activate the genes fused with the promoter containing three tandemly repeated copies of the wild-type DRE sequence: TACCGACAT. In different wheat cultivars, the Ta DREB1 gene is induced by low temperature, salinity and drought; and the expression of Wcs120 that contains DRE motifs in its promoter is closely related to the expression of TaDREB1. These results suggest that TaDREB1 functions as a DRE-binding transcription factor in wheat. We also observed the dwarf phenotype in transgenic rice (T0) overexpressing TaDREB1.
The spread of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) throughout the world has been a severe challenge for public health. The human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has a remarkably high affinity binding to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). By the search for network database and re-analysis of pubic data, we found the level of ACE2 expression in adipose tissue was higher than that in lung tissue, which indicated the adipose tissue might be vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2 as well; the levels of ACE2 expressed by adipocytes and adipose progenitor cells were similar between non-obese individuals and obese individuals, but obese individuals have more adiposes so as to increase the number of ACE2-expressing cells; the expression of ACE2 in tumor tissues posed by five different types of cancers increased significantly compared with that in adjacent tissues. Thus, we suggest that more attentions might be given to obese individuals and the five types of cancer patients during the outbreak of COVID-19.
Extracts from six wheat varieties (three purple, one yellow, two red, and one white) were evaluated and compared for their antioxidant capacities against oxygen radical and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. Phenolic composition in the extracts was examined by high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The results showed that Charcoal purple wheat had remarkable antioxidant activity (up to 6899 μmol/100 g) followed by Red Fife wheat and yellow Luteus wheat. White AC Vista wheat, due to its lowest phenolic content, exhibited the weakest antioxidant property. The major phenolic composition identified in wheat grains consisted of phenolic acids, flavones, flavonols, and anthocyanins. The former three components were detected in all of the wheat varieties, whereas anthocyanins were identified only in purple wheat. Therefore, anthocyanins could be the major compounds distinguishing purple wheats from other colored wheats with high antioxidant activity.
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