Twenty-eight Brangus cattle were used to determine the effect of copper and selenium supplementation on performance, feed efficiency, composition of fatty acids in Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle, and cholesterol concentration in serum and in LD muscle and enzymes activities, reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG). The treatments were: i) Control, without copper (Cu) and selenium (Se) supplementation; ii) Se, 2 mg Se/kg of dry matter such as sodium selenite; iii) Cu, 40 mg Cu/kg of dry matter such as copper sulfate; iv) Se/Cu, 2 mg Se/kg of dry matter such as sodium selenite and 40 mg Cu/kg of dry matter such as copper sulfate. LD muscle fatty acid composition was not influenced by the treatments (p>0.05). The serum concentration of cholesterol was not influenced by the treatments (p>0.05), however, the concentration of cholesterol in LD was lower in cattle supplemented with copper and selenium (p<0.05). Oxidized glutathione and reduced glutathione increased (p<0.05) with Cu, Se and Se/Cu supplementation. The supplementation of copper (40 mg/kg DM) and selenium (2 mg/kg DM) altered the metabolism of lipids in confined Brangus cattle, through a decrease in cholesterol deposition in the LD, possibly by changing the ratio between reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione. Copper and selenium supplementation improved animal performance and feed efficiency (p<0.05) when compared to the control group, providing advantages in the production system, while also benefiting consumers by reducing cholesterol concentration in the meat.
Four rumen-fistulated Holstein heifers (134 +/- 1 kg initial BW) were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design to determine the effects of delaying daily feed delivery time on intake, ruminal fermentation, behavior, and stress response. Each 3-wk experimental period was preceded by 1 wk in which all animals were fed at 0800 h. Feed bunks were cleaned at 0745 h and feed offered at 0800 h (T0, no delay), 0900 (T1), 1000 (T2), and 1100 (T3) from d 1 to 21 with measurements taken during wk 1 and 3. Heifers were able to see each other at all times. Concentrate and barley straw were offered in separate compartments of the feed bunks, once daily and for ad libitum intake. Ruminal pH and saliva cortisol concentrations were measured at 0, 4, 8, and 12 h postfeeding on d 3 and 17 of each experimental period. Fecal glucocorticoid metabolites were measured on d 17. Increasing length of delay in daily feed delivery time resulted in a quadratic response in concentrate DMI (low in T1 and T2; P = 0.002), whereas straw DMI was greatest in T1 and T3 (cubic P = 0.03). Treatments affected the distribution of DMI within the day with a linear decrease observed between 0800 and 1200 h but a linear increase during nighttimes (2000 to 0800 h), whereas T1 and T2 had reduced DMI between 1200 and 1600 h (quadratic P = 0.04). Water consumption (L/d) was not affected but decreased linearly when expressed as liters per kilogram of DMI (P = 0.01). Meal length was greatest and eating rate slowest in T1 and T2 (quadratic P < or = 0.001). Size of the first meal after feed delivery was reduced in T1 on d 1 (cubic P = 0.05) and decreased linearly on d 2 (P = 0.01) after change. Concentrate eating and drinking time (shortest in T1) and straw eating time (longest in T1) followed a cubic trend (P < or = 0.02). Time spent lying down was shortest and ruminating in standing position longest in T1 and T2. Delay of feeding time resulted in greater daily maximum salivary cortisol concentration (quadratic P = 0.04), which was greatest at 0 h in T1 and at 12 h after feeding in T2 (P < 0.05). Daily mean fecal glucocorticoid metabolites were greatest in T1 and T3 (cubic P = 0.04). Ruminal pH showed a treatment effect at wk 1 because of increased values in T1 and T3 (cubic P = 0.01). Delaying feed delivery time was not detrimental for rumen function because a stress response was triggered, which led to reduced concentrate intake, eating rate, and size of first meal, and increased straw intake. Increased salivary cortisol suggests that animal welfare is compromised.
without copper supplementation, I10 or I40: 10 or 40 mg/kg DM (as Cu sulfate), O10 or O40: 10 or 40 mg/kg DM (as Cu proteinate). In general, the copper supplementation changed the fatty acid profile of meat (p<0.05), with a higher proportion of unsaturated fatty acids and reduction of saturated fatty acids. There was no effect of supplementation on blood cholesterol and triglycerides, however; in general, there was a reduction in cholesterol concentration in the L. dorsi (p<0.05) compared to the control treatment through the reduction (p<0.05) in the concentrations of GSH and GSH/GSSG ratio. The Cu supplementation did have an influence on metabolism of lipids. The production of healthier meat is beneficial to public health by reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease.
-Twenty-eight Brangus cattle were used to determine the effect of copper and selenium supplementation on the carcass characteristics, fatty acid composition of the longissimus dorsi muscle and on the copper and selenium concentrations in the liver. The treatments were: no supplementation of copper or selenium; 2 mg Se/kg DM as sodium selenite; 40 mg Cu/kg DM as copper sulfate; and 2 mg Se/kg DM as sodium selenite and 40 mg Cu/kg DM as copper sulfate. The fat thickness, rib eye area and fatty acid composition of the longissimus dorsi muscle were not affected by treatments. There was no effect on carcass yield and cooling loss with the supplementation of copper, selenium or selenium × copper in the levels studied. For the ether extract concentration in the longissimus dorsi muscle, no differences were found according to the treatments with selenium, copper or selenium × copper. The treatments with selenium and selenium × copper showed higher selenium concentrations in the liver than the control and copper treatments. For the copper concentration in the liver, the copper and selenium × copper treatments showed higher values than the control and selenium treatments. Despite the little effect on the meat composition, the results of this experiment demonstrate no interaction between selenium and copper in the levels studied.
A number of studies has shown that antioxidants, fatty acids and trace minerals may modulate different immune cell activities, and that their deficiency may be associated with diseases and impaired immune responses. In innate immunity, natural killer (NK) cells have a central role, killing virally infected and cancerous cells, and also secreting cytokines that shape adaptive immune responses. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of enriched diets in selenium plus vitamin E and/or canola oil on complete blood count and on NK cell cytotoxicity from blood lymphocytes of Nellore bulls. Bulls that received selenium plus vitamin E had (P=0.0091) higher NK cell cytotoxicity than control bulls. This result positively correlated with serum selenium levels. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that showed immunostimulatory effects of selenium plus vitamin E on NK cell cytotoxicity of Nellore bulls.
In the present study, thirty-five Nellore bulls were used to determine the effects of two levels and two sources (organic and inorganic) of Cu supplementation on the oxidative stability of lipids, measured by the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) test, meat colour and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) enzyme activities. The following treatments were used: (1) control (C) -basal diet without supplementation of Cu (7 mg Cu/kg DM); (2) I10 -basal diet supplemented with 10 mg Cu/kg DM in the form of copper sulphate (inorganic form); (3) I40 -basal diet supplemented with 40 mg Cu/kg DM in the form of copper sulphate; (4) O10 -basal diet supplemented with 10 mg Cu/kg DM in the form of copper proteinate (organic form); (5) O40 -basal diet supplemented with 40 mg Cu/kg DM in the form of copper proteinate. Lipid oxidation was determined in meat samples exposed to display, modified atmosphere (MA) and vacuum packaging (VC) conditions and in liver samples using the TBARS test. These samples were also evaluated for meat discolouration after exposure to air. The activities of SOD and GSH-Px enzymes were determined in liver samples. In display, MA and VC conditions, the TBARS values of samples from animals supplemented with 40 mg Cu/kg DM were lower than those of samples from control animals. There was no effect of treatment on the colour variables (L*, a*, b*). There was also no significant effect of treatment on hepatic TBARS concentrations and GSH-Px activity. Supplementation with Cu at 40 mg/kg, regardless of the source, induced higher hepatic SOD activity compared with the control treatment. In conclusion, Cu supplementation improved the oxidative stability of lipids in samples exposed to display, MA and VC conditions, demonstrating the antioxidant effect of this mineral.
Thirty-two lambs were distributed in eight treatments under 2×2×2 factorial experiment to compare the effects of two levels of selenium (0.2 to 5 mg/kg dry matter [DM]), sulphur (0.25% and 0.37%) and copper (8 and 25 mg/kg DM) levels on selenium concentration in liver and serum of lambs. A liver biopsy was done on all animals and blood samples were collected from the jugular vein prior to the beginning of the treatments. The blood was sampled every thirty days and the liver was sampled after 90 days, at the slaughter. Increasing differences were noticed during the data collection period for the serum selenium concentration, and it was found to be 0.667 mg/L in animals fed with 5 mg Se/kg DM and normal sulphur and copper concentrations in their diet. However, a three-way interaction and a reduction of selenium concentration to 0.483 mg/L was verified when increasing copper and sulphur concentration levels to 25 ppm and 0.37% respectively. The liver selenium concentration was also high for diets containing higher selenium concentrations, but the antagonist effect with the increased copper and sulphur levels remained, due to interactions between these minerals. Therefore, for regions where selenium is scarce, increasing its concentration in animal diets can be an interesting option. For regions with higher levels of selenium, the antagonistic effect of interaction between these three minerals should be used by increasing copper and sulphur dietary concentrations, thus preventing possible selenium poisoning.
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