The use of edible insects has a long history in China, where they have been consumed for more than 2000 years. In general, the level of acceptance is high for the consumption of insects in China. Many studies on edible insects have been conducted in the last 20 years, and the scope of the research includes the culture of entomophagy and the identification, nutritional value, farming and breeding of edible insects, in addition to food production and safety. Currently, 324 species of insects from 11 orders are documented that are either edible or associated with entomophagy in China, which include the common edible species, some less commonly consumed species and some medicinal insects. However, only approximately 10 to 20 types of insects are regularly consumed. The nutritional values for 174 species are available in China, including edible, feed and medicinal species. Although the nutritional values vary among species, all the insects examined contain protein, fat, vitamins and minerals at levels that meet human nutritional requirements. Edible insects were, and continue to be, consumed by different ethnic groups in many parts of China. People directly consume insects or food products made from insects. The processing of products from insect protein powder, oil and chitin, and the development of healthcare foods has been studied in China. People also consume insects indirectly by eating livestock that were fed insects, which may be a more acceptable pathway to use insects in human diets. Although limited, the data on the food safety of insects indicate that insects are safe for food or feed. Incidences of allergic reactions after consuming silkworm pupae, cicadas and crickets have been reported in China. Insect farming is a unique breeding industry in rural China and is a source of income for local people. Insects are reared and bred for human food, medicine and animal feed using two approaches in China: the insects are either fully domesticated and reared completely in captivity or are partially raised in captivity, and the insect habitat is manipulated to increase production. Depending on the type of relationship the insect has with humans, plants and the environment, different farming strategies are used. The social and scientific communities must work together to promote the use of insects as food and feed.
Background Previous studies on telemedicine interventions have shown that older diabetic patients experience difficulty in using computers, which is a barrier to remote communication between medical teams and older diabetic patients. However, older people in China tend to find it easy to use mobile phones and personal messaging apps that have a user-friendly interface. Therefore, we designed a mobile health (mHealth) system for older people with diabetes that is based on mobile phones, has a streamlined operation interface, and incorporates maximum automation. Objective The goal of the research was to investigate the use of mobile phone–based telemedicine apps for management of older Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Variables of interest included efficacy and safety. Methods A total of 91 older (aged over 65 years) patients with T2DM who presented to our department were randomly assigned to one of two groups. Patients in the intervention group (n=44) were provided glucometers capable of data transmission and received advice pertaining to medication, diet, and exercise via the mHealth telemedicine system. Patients assigned to the control group (n=47) received routine outpatient care with no additional intervention. Patients in both groups were followed up at regular 3-month intervals. Results After 3 months, patients in the intervention group showed significant ( P <.05) improvement in postprandial plasma glucose level. After 6 months, patients in the intervention group exhibited a decreasing trend in postprandial plasma glucose and glycated hemoglobin levels compared with the baseline and those in the control group ( P <.05). Conclusions Mobile phone–based telemedicine apps help improve glycemic control in older Chinese patients with T2DM. Trial Registration China Clinical Trial Registration Center ChiCTR 1800015214; http://www.chictr.org.cn/showprojen.aspx?proj=25949 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/73wKj1GMq).
The role of oxidative stress in skeletal health is unclear. The present study investigated whether a high dietary intake of antioxidant nutrients (vitamins C and E, b-carotene, animal-derived vitamin A, retinol equivalents, Zn and Se) is associated with a reduced risk of hip fracture in elderly Chinese. This 1:1 matched case -control study involved 726 elderly Chinese with hip fracture and 726 control subjects, recruited between June 2009 and May 2013. Face-to-face interviews were conducted to determine habitual dietary intakes of the above-mentioned seven nutrients based on a seventy-nine-item FFQ and information on various covariates, and an antioxidant score was calculated. After adjustment for potential covariates, dose-dependent inverse associations were observed between the dietary intake of vitamin C, vitamin E, b-carotene, and Se and antioxidant score and the risk of hip fracture (P for trend #0·005). The OR of hip fracture for the highest (v. lowest) quartile of intake were 0·39 (95 % CI 0·28, 0·56) for vitamin C, 0·23 (95 % CI 0·16, 0·33) for vitamin E, 0·51 (95 % CI 0·36, 0·73) for b-carotene, 0·43 (95 % CI 0·26, 0·70) for Se and 0·24 (95 % CI 0·17, 0·36) for the antioxidant score. A moderate-to-high dietary intake of retinol equivalents in quartiles 2 -4 (v. 1) was found to be associated with a lower risk of hip fracture (OR range: 0·51 -0·63, P, 0·05). No significant association was observed between dietary Zn or animal-derived vitamin A intake and hip fracture risk (P for trend .0·20). In conclusion, a higher dietary intake of vitamins C and E, b-carotene, and Se and a moderateto-high dietary intake of retinol equivalents are associated with a lower risk of hip fracture in elderly Chinese.
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a major renal disease associated with a high mortality rate and increasing prevalence. Decades of research has suggested numerous chemical and biological agents with beneficial effects in AKI. In addition, cell therapy and molecular targeting have been explored for reducing kidney tissue damage and promoting kidney repair or recovery from AKI. Mechanistically, these approaches may mitigate oxidative stress, inflammation, cell death, and mitochondrial and other organellar damage, or activate cytoprotective mechanisms such as autophagy and pro-survival factors. However, none of these findings has been successfully translated into clinical treatment of AKI. In this review, we analyze these findings and propose experimental strategies for the identification of renoprotective agents or methods with clinical potential. Moreover, we propose the consideration of combination therapy by targeting multiple targets in AKI.
The research and utilization of medicinal insects in China is introduced briefly in this paper. Medicinal insects have been used to treat human diseases from ancient times. There are approximately 300 medicinal insects species distributed in 70 genera, 63 families and 14 orders at present. An estimated 1700 traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions include medicinal insects or insect-derived crude drugs. Many insect-derived compounds have been studied and show efficient therapeutic functions. Techniques for mass rearing and cultivation of medicinal insects have been developed in order to have sufficient quantities of medicinal insects. Suggestions are made towards the uses of medicinal insects and it is proposed that insects will be a main resource for the future discovery of new drugs.
The IBGMS was effective in improving blood sugar levels among patients with diabetes. Therefore, IBGMS experience can be effectively transferred between institutions and countries.
Objectives. To investigate the risk factors for cognitive impairment in Chinese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients of advanced age and to identify effective biomarkers of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in these patients. Methods. Chinese T2DM patients (n=120) aged 50–70 years were divided into groups with impaired (mild, moderate, and severe) and normal cognitive function based on Montreal Cognitive Assessment and Mini-Mental State Examination scores. Data regarding demographic characteristics, clinical features of diabetes, biochemical markers, and metabolomics were collected. Results. Age, educational level, duration of diabetes, fasting blood glucose (FBG), HbA1c, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and 24-hour urine protein were significantly associated with cognitive impairment in T2DM patients of advanced age. The severity of fundus retinopathy and the incidence of macrovascular disease also differed significantly among the groups (P<0.05). Metabolomics analysis suggested that increased levels of glutamate (Glu), phenylalanine (Phe), tyrosine (Tyr), proline (Pro), and homocysteine (Hcy) and a decreased level of glutamine (Gln) were significantly associated with cognitive impairment in the T2DM patients (P<0.05). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated that Glu, Gln, Phe, and Pro levels were significant predictors of cognitive impairment in the T2DM patients. Conclusions. Age, educational level, duration of diabetes, and the levels of FBG, HbA1c, TC, TG, and 24-hour urine protein were considered as independent risk factors for cognitive impairment in older T2DM patients. Macrovascular and microvascular diseases also were closely associated with cognitive impairment in these patients. Together, Glu and Gln levels may represent a good predictive biomarker for the early diagnosis of cognitive impairment in T2DM patients.
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