The tumor suppressor p53 gene is mutated in minimally half of all cancers. It is therefore reasonable to assume that naturally occurring polymorphic genetic variants in the p53 stress response pathway might determine an individual's susceptibility to cancer. A central node in the p53 pathway is the MDM2 protein, a direct negative regulator of p53. In this report, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP309) is found in the MDM2 promoter and is shown to increase the affinity of the transcriptional activator Sp1, resulting in higher levels of MDM2 RNA and protein and the subsequent attenuation of the p53 pathway. In humans, SNP309 is shown to associate with accelerated tumor formation in both hereditary and sporadic cancers. A model is proposed whereby SNP309 serves as a rate-limiting event in carcinogenesis.
Molecular analysis for a panel of mutations has significant diagnostic value for all categories of indeterminate cytology and can be helpful for more effective clinical management of these patients.
BACKGROUND: Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology is a common approach to evaluating thyroid nodules, although 20% to 30% of FNAs have indeterminate cytology, which hampers the appropriate management of these patients. Follicular (or oncocytic) neoplasm/suspicious for a follicular (or oncocytic) neoplasm (FN/SFN) is a common indeterminate diagnosis with a cancer risk of approximately 15% to 30%. In this study, the authors tested whether the most complete next-generation sequencing (NGS) panel of genetic markers could significantly improve cancer diagnosis in these nodules. METHODS: The evaluation of 143 consecutive FNA samples with a cytologic diagnosis of FN/SFN from patients with known surgical outcomes included 91 retrospective samples and 52 prospective samples. Analyses were performed on a proprietary sequencer using the targeted ThyroSeq v2 NGS panel, which simultaneously tests for point mutations in 13 genes and for 42 types of gene fusions that occur in thyroid cancer. The expression of 8 genes was used to assess the cellular composition of FNA samples. RESULTS: In the entire cohort, histologic analysis revealed 104 benign nodules and 39 malignant nodules. The most common point mutations involved the neuroblastoma RAS viral oncogene homolog (NRAS), followed by the Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS), the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene, and the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) gene. The identified fusions involved the thyroid adenoma associated (THADA) gene; the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor g (PPARG) gene; and the neurotrophic tyrosine kinase, receptor, type 3 (NTRK3) gene. Performance characteristics were similar in the retrospective and prospective groups. Among all FN/SFN nodules, preoperative ThyroSeq v2 performed with 90% sensitivity (95% confidence interval [CI], 80%-99%), 93% specificity (95% CI, 88%-98%), a positive predictive value of 83% (95% CI, 72%-95%), a negative predictive value of 96% (95% CI, 92%-100%), and 92% accuracy (95% CI, 88%-97%). CONCLUSIONS: The current results indicate that comprehensive genotyping of thyroid nodules using a broad NGS panel provides a highly accurate diagnosis for nodules with FN/SFN cytology and should facilitate the optimal management of these patients.
A B S T R A C T PurposeTo investigate the prognostic value of BRAF V600E mutation for the recurrence of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Patients and MethodsThis was a retrospective multicenter study of the relationship between BRAF V600E mutation and recurrence of PTC in 2,099 patients (1,615 women and 484 men), with a median age of 45 years (interquartile range [IQR], 34 to 58 years) and a median follow-up time of 36 months (IQR, 14 to 75 months). ResultsThe overall BRAF V600E mutation prevalence was 48.5% (1,017 of 2,099). PTC recurrence occurred in 20.9% (213 of 1,017) of BRAF V600E mutation-positive and 11.6% (125 of 1,082) of BRAF V600E mutation-negative patients. Recurrence rates were 47.71 (95% CI, 41.72 to 54.57) versus 26.03 (95% CI, 21.85 to 31.02) per 1,000 person-years in BRAF mutation-positive versus -negative patients (P Ͻ .001), with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.82 (95% CI, 1.46 to 2.28), which remained significant in a multivariable model adjusting for patient sex and age at diagnosis, medical center, and various conventional pathologic factors. Significant association between BRAF mutation and PTC recurrence was also found in patients with conventionally low-risk disease stage I or II and micro-PTC and within various subtypes of PTC. For example, in BRAF mutation-positive versus -negative follicular-variant PTC, recurrence occurred in 21.3% (19 of 89) and 7.0% (24 of 342) of patients, respectively, with recurrence rates of 53.84 (95% CI, 34.34 to 84.40) versus 19.47 (95% CI, 13.05 to 29.04) per 1,000 person-years (P Ͻ .001) and an HR of 3.20 (95% CI, 1.46 to 7.02) after adjustment for clinicopathologic factors. BRAF mutation was associated with poorer recurrence-free probability in Kaplan-Meier survival analyses in various clinicopathologic categories. ConclusionThis large multicenter study demonstrates an independent prognostic value of BRAF V600E mutation for PTC recurrence in various clinicopathologic categories.
Key Points Question Can the diagnosis of benign disease or cancer in thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology be established by molecular testing instead of diagnostic surgery? Findings This prospective, blinded, multicenter cohort study of a multigene genomic classifier (ThyroSeq v3) test included 257 indeterminate cytology thyroid nodules with informative test results. It demonstrated a high sensitivity (94%) and reasonably high specificity (82%), with 61% of the nodules yielding a negative test result and only 3% residual cancer risk in these nodules. Meanings Up to 61% of patients with indeterminate cytology thyroid nodules may avoid diagnostic surgery by undergoing multigene genomic classifier testing.
Background: Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology is a common approach to evaluate thyroid nodules. It offers definitive diagnosis of a benign or malignant nodule in the majority of cases. However, 10–25% of nodules yield one of three indeterminate cytologic diagnoses, leading to suboptimal management of these patients. Atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undermined significance (AUS/FLUS) is a common indeterminate diagnosis, with the cancer risk ranging from 6% to 48%. This study assessed whether a multi-gene next-generation sequencing (NGS) assay can offer significant improvement in diagnosis in AUS/FLUS nodules.Methods: From May 2014 to March 2015, 465 consecutive FNA samples with the cytologic diagnosis of AUS/FLUS underwent prospective molecular testing using the ThyroSeq v2.1 panel. The panel included 14 genes analyzed for point mutations and 42 types of gene fusions occurring in thyroid cancer. In addition, eight genes were assessed for expression in order to evaluate the cell composition of FNA samples. Ninety-eight (21%) of these nodules had definitive surgical (n = 96) or nonsurgical (n = 2) follow-up and were used to determine the assay performance.Results: Among 465 AUS/FLUS nodules, three were found to be composed of parathyroid cells and 462 of thyroid follicular cells. Of the latter, 31 (6.7%) were positive for mutations. The most frequently mutated genes were NRAS and HRAS, and overall point mutations in seven different genes and five types of gene fusions were identified in these nodules. Among 98 nodules with known outcome, histologic analysis revealed 22 (22.5%) cancers. ThyroSeq v2.1 was able to classify 20/22 cancers correctly, showing a sensitivity of 90.9% [confidence interval (CI) 78.8–100], specificity of 92.1% [CI 86.0–98.2], positive predictive value of 76.9% [CI 60.7–93.1], and negative predictive value of 97.2% [CI 78.8–100], with an overall accuracy of 91.8% [CI 86.4–97.3].Conclusions: The results of the study demonstrate that the ThyroSeq v2.1 multi-gene NGS panel of molecular markers provides both high sensitivity and high specificity for cancer detection in thyroid nodules with AUS/FLUS cytology, which should allow improved management for these patients.
Objective: To develop evidence-based recommendations for safe, effective, and appropriate thyroidectomy. Background: Surgical management of thyroid disease has evolved considerably over several decades leading to variability in rendered care. Over 100,000 thyroid operations are performed annually in the US. Methods: The medical literature from 1/1/1985 to 11/9/2018 was reviewed by a panel of 19 experts in thyroid disorders representing multiple disciplines. The authors used the best available evidence to construct surgical management recommendations. Levels of evidence were determined using the American College of Physicians grading system, and management recommendations were discussed to consensus. Members of the American Association of Endocrine Surgeons reviewed and commented on preliminary drafts of the content. Results: These clinical guidelines analyze the indications for thyroidectomy as well as its definitions, technique, morbidity, and outcomes. Specific topics include Pathogenesis and Epidemiology, Initial Evaluation, Imaging, Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy Diagnosis, Molecular Testing, Indications, Extent and Outcomes of Surgery, Preoperative Care, Initial Thyroidectomy, Perioperative Tissue Diagnosis, Nodal Dissection, Concurrent Parathyroidectomy, Hyperthyroid Conditions, Goiter, Adjuncts and Approaches to Thyroidectomy, Laryngology, Familial Thyroid Cancer, Postoperative Care and Complications, Cancer Management, and Reoperation. Conclusions: Evidence-based guidelines were created to assist clinicians in the optimal surgical management of thyroid disease.
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