Toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS) is a sterile postoperative inflammatory reaction caused by a noninfectious substance that enters the anterior segment, resulting in toxic damage to intraocular tissues. The process typically starts 12 to 48 hours after cataract/anterior segment surgery, is limited to the anterior segment of the eye, is always Gram stain and culture negative, and usually improves with steroid treatment. The primary differential diagnosis is infectious endophthalmitis. Review of the literature indicates that possible causes of TASS include intraocular solutions with inappropriate chemical composition, concentration, pH, or osmolality; preservatives; denatured ophthalmic viscosurgical devices; enzymatic detergents; bacterial endotoxin; oxidized metal deposits and residues; and factors related to intraocular lenses such as residues from polishing or sterilizing compounds. An outbreak of TASS is an environmental and toxic control issue that requires complete analysis of all medications and fluids used during surgery, as well as complete review of operating room and sterilization protocols.
Suture-fixated PCIOLs can dislocate due to degradation of the suture material over time. The use of larger diameter (9-0 instead of 10-0) polypropylene suture material and placement of the haptic and sutures in the ciliary sulcus to promote attachment of scar tissue may enhance the long-term stability of scleral-fixated PCIOLs.
This study seems to confirm the sandwich theory of posterior capsule opacification in eyes with an IOL and suggests that fibronectin may be the major extracellular protein responsible for the attachment of hydrophobic soft acrylate (AcrySof(R)) IOLs to the capsular bag. This may represent a true bioactive bond between the IOL and lens epithelial cells or between the IOL and the capsular bag and may be one reason the PCO and neodymium:YAG capsulotomy rates are lower in eyes with a soft acrylate IOL.
Purpose To report and compare clinical and pathological features of hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lenses (IOLs) of three major designs, explanted from patients who had visual disturbances caused by opacification of the lens optic. Methods Eighty-seven hydrophilic acrylic IOLs (25 Hydroview TM , 54 SC60B-OUV, and 8 Aqua-Sense TM lenses) were explanted and sent to our center. Most patients became symptomatic during the second year after cataract surgery. A fine granularity was observed on the surface of the lens optic in the case of Hydroview TM . With the SC60B-OUV and Aqua-Sense TM lenses, the opacity resembled a nuclear cataract. Gross examination, light microscopy and staining with alizarin red and the von Kossa method (for calcium) were performed. Some lenses were submitted for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Results Light microscopic and SEM analyses revealed the presence of irregular granular deposits on the external optical surfaces of Hydroview TM lenses. With the SC60B-OUV lenses, the opacity was caused by the presence of multiple fine, granular deposits within the lens optic, distributed in a line parallel to the anterior and posterior curvatures of the optic, with a clear zone just beneath its external surfaces. The Aqua-Sense TM lenses exhibited both patterns simultaneously. The deposits in all cases stained positive with alizarin red and von Kossa method. EDS also demonstrated the presence of calcium and phosphates within the deposits. Conclusion Differences in the water content of the hydrophilic acrylic materials used in the manufacture of these three lens designs may be responsible for the different patterns of calcium precipitation. Careful clinical follow up of patients implanted with these lenses is necessary to determine if this phenomenon is rare and sporadic or may be more widespread.
The tenth annual survey of complications associated with foldable intraocular lenses (IOLs) requiring explantation or secondary intervention was sent to members of the American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery and the European Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgeons. Preoperative data about visual acuity, patient signs and symptoms, and complications requiring IOL removal were evaluated. Complications were then tabulated for each of the following major foldable IOL groups: 1-piece (plate) silicone, 1-piece hydrophobic acrylic with haptics, 3-piece silicone, 3-piece hydrophobic acrylic, 3-piece hydrophilic acrylic (hydrogel), 3-piece unknown, multifocal acrylic, and multifocal silicone. One hundred forty-two surveys were returned for evaluation. Dislocation/decentration, incorrect IOL power, glare/optical aberrations, and IOL calcification were the most common reasons for removing foldable IOLs. Good surgical technique, accurate IOL power measurements, and high manufacturing standards for foldable IOL materials and designs are the most important factors in preventing complications.
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