Background: Salmonella spp. are frequently isolated from fowls, and their detection in poultry products varies according to the breeding system and the slaughtering process, bringing risks to the consumer and compromising the marketability. The control of Salmonella in poultry slaughterhouses is based on the detection of bacteria, but the quantification of the agent would be important in assessing risk, as well as in obtaining data to determine the capacity of each step of the process to decrease or increase bacterial contamination. The aims of this study were to propose a method for the quantification of Salmonella in poultry slaughterhouses, frequency of isolation and serovars identified.Materials, Methods & Results: Twenty-one broiler flocks from seven federally inspected slaughterhouses in southern Brazil, totaling 1,071 samples, were assessed by miniaturized most probable number (mMPN) and conventional microbiology. The samples were collected in triplicate at 17 points, which included cloacae, transportation cages before and after sanitization, water (scald tank, supply, pre-chiller and chiller), and carcasses (before and after scalding, defeathering, rinsing, evisceration, final rinsing, chilling at 4ºC, and freezing at -12°C for 24 h, 30 and 60 days). Typical Salmonella colonies were submitted to TSI, LIA, SIM, urea, and polyvalent anti-O antiserum tests, and to final identification by Microarray by Check&Trace. Nine of the 1,071 (0.83%) samples analyzed by mMPN and by conventional microbiology were positive for Salmonella and the following serovars were identified: Anatum, Brandenburg, Agona, Tennessee, Bredeney, Schwarzengrund and Infantis.Discussion: This positive rate was lower than that described by other authors, whose rates ranged from 3% and 39% for the isolation of Salmonella spp. from different sources, such as slaughterhouses and retail sales in samples collected in Brazil. The low frequency of isolation of Salmonella in this study can be attributed to the efficiency of control systems used from the field to the slaughterhouse, such as Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) and Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures (SSOP), which are HACCP requirements. Also, when slaughtering technology actions are properly managed, such as water replacement and temperatures lower than 4ºC in the chiller, the initial contamination by Salmonella spp. can be reduced, with a decline in contamination from 70% to 20%, and with a reduction in the contamination of broiler carcasses after chilling from 15.8% to 3.3%. On the other hand the contamination of carcasses by Salmonella before pre-chilling and in post-chilling might be due to the automated system, inadequate temperatures during chilling, and inappropriate water chlorination in the assessed meat-packing plant. Of the 17 points evaluated, seven were positive for Salmonella, especially the cages after sanitization and frozen carcasses. The contamination by Salmonella spp. in transportation cages after sanitization indicates inefficiency of the automated system as well as possible bacterial resistance to the sanitizers used in SSOP while the isolation in carcasses frozen for 24 h and 60 days demonstrates the thermal resistance of the bacterium to a conservation method widely used in the food industry. In this work, just one of the nine positive samples for Salmonella was identified by conventional methods (CM) and mMPN. The discrepancy between methods can be explained by the heterogeneous distribution of Salmonella and other bacteria in naturally contaminated samples. Samples that were positive in the qualitative test but negative in the mMPN protocol could have had a number of Salmonella below the detection amount.
Introduction: Salmonella is a major cause of foodborne illness throughout the world. The use of quantitative techniques is important for assessing the risk and determining the capacity of each step of the slaughtering process to decrease or increase bacterial contamination. We aimed to detect and to quantify the presence of Salmonella in Brazilian processing plants by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Methodology: A total of 139 poultry slaughterhouses samples were collected in order to detect to and quantify Salmonella by qPCR. Results: Almost all collection points (3/18), except water from pre-chiller tank, carcasses after pre-chiller, and carcasses frozen at -12ºC for 60 days, and 49% (68/139) of samples were positive for Salmonella. Quantification means varied equally among all of the tested sources, and we could not establish any pattern of variation. A large proportion (52.6%) of cloacal swabs was Salmonella-positive. Also, contamination in transport cages was increased after the cleaning process, indicating that the process was ineffective. The overall prevalence in samples obtained during the slaughtering process was 48.9%, and on the whole rinsed carcasses, this proportion was 50%. The detection of Salmonella in frozen carcasses, even after long periods of storage, indicates that the carcasses are a potential source of infection for consumers. Conclusions: We found that contamination levels remain similar throughout the slaughtering. qPCR proved to be an efficient method for the detection of Salmonella.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial sensitivity and efficacy of three sanitizers against Salmonella spp. isolated from carcasses in swine slaughterhouse. Thirty nine of 120 samples were positive for Salmonella spp. The antimicrobials tested included: penicillin G 10 U, amoxicillin + clavulanic acid 30mcg, ampicillin 10mcg, chloramphenicol 30mcg, tetracycline 30mcg, streptomycin 10mcg, gentamicin 10mcg, neomycin 30mcg, enrofloxacin 5mcg, sulfazotrim 25mcg, sulfonamide 300mcg and trimetropim 5mcg. In the tests with sanitizers were used chlorhexidine, quaternary ammonia and peracetic acid, which were put in contact intervals of 1, 5, 10 and 15 minutes. Antimicrobial resistance was observed using penicillin (100%), tetracycline (94.9%), trimetropim (89.7%), and ampicillin (87.2%). None of the antimicrobials was 100% effective against the samples tested. Amoxicillin + clavulanic acid (86.7%), neomycin (86.7%) and chloramphenicol (64.1%) showed better antimicrobial action. In tests of efficacy of sanitizers, 0.5% peracetic acid was effective at 10 minutes (94.6%) and 15 minutes (97.3%) of contact; 1% quaternary ammonia at 10 minutes (89.2%) and 15 minutes (97.3%) and 0.5% chlorhexidine at 10 minutes (70.3%) and 15 minutes (72.8%). All samples tested were multidrug resistance and six (15.3%) showed resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfonamide and tetracycline (ACSSuT group) indicating the need to monitor the spread of antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp. isolated from swine. The most effective sanitizing against the bacteria tested was 0.5% peracetic acid per 15 minutes, reinforcing the need to monitor the effectiveness of products sanitizers against Salmonella spp.INDEX TERMS: Salmonella spp., antimicrobials, sanitizers, swine slaughterhouses. INTRODUÇÃOSalmonella spp. são importantes patógenos zoonóticos que podem ser disseminados na produção de suínos, uma vez que os animais podem ser assintomáticos à infecção e manter estas bactérias alojadas no trato gastrointestinal. A constante exposição da microbiota residente dos suínos aos mais variados princípios ativos antimicrobianos, muitas vezes administrados em subdosagens, tem favorecido o aparecimento de linhagens multirresistentes. Como consequência, a presença de Salmonella spp. em carnes e produtos derivados de suínos é motivo de preocupação para a cadeia produtiva e uma importante barreira sanitária às exportações (Guimarães 2010).Os avanços na área da tecnologia de alimentos têm por objetivo garantir a qualidade e a inocuidade dos mesmos, pois as doenças transmitidas por alimentos (DTAs) representam problemas de saúde pública e uma importante causa de redução da produtividade econômica (Delazari 2003, Guimarães 2010). Na indústria de carnes, a desinfecção eficaz das superfícies de contato é uma importante barreira sanitária para evitar que micro-organismos deteriorantes ou potencialmente patogênicos contaminem os alimentos (Molina 2010). Consequentemente, as normas de biossegurança, limpeza e desinfecção são fun...
ABSTRACT.-Santos L.A., Mion L., Marotzki M., Parizotto L., Rodrigues L.B., Nascimento V. Poultry products can be important modes of transmission of Salmonella spp. to humans and, among several parameters used to determine food quality, microbiological characteristics play an essential role. The aim of this study was to determine and quantify Salmonella spp. at broiler slaughtering facilities. This was done by conventional microbiology and by the miniaturized most probable number (mMPN) methods. Three federally-inspected slaughterhouses were visited, where samples were collected in triplicate from six sites: reception of live birds (cloacal swabs and sponge samples from transport cages before and after sanitation) and carcass processing (after pre-chiller, after dripping, and before primary packaging and refrigeration at -12 o C for 24h), totaling 108 samples. Three of the six surveyed sites and two of the three slaughterhouses were contaminated with Salmonella spp., showing an infection rate of 5.5% independently of the method used, and revealing that transport cages were contaminated after sanitation. No correlation could be established between the results of conventional microbiology and mMPN methods, and contamination along the slaughtering line could not quantified. This indicates the importance of combining qualitative and quantitative methods for the enumeration of Salmonella when detection rates are lower than the proposed mMPN limit (0.13 MPN/mL). Typhimurium, Panama, Lexington and Rissen, which are paratyphoid organisms and are potentially infectious to humans, were identified. However, these serovars were isolated at the reception of live birds (from cloacal swabs and from transport cages) rather than from the end products. Given that Salmonella spp. was detected in transport cages after sanitation, it is paramount that automated washing procedures currently used in slaughterhouses be reassessed and adjusted.INDEX TERMS: Salmonella spp., miniaturized most probable number, serovars, poultry slaughterhouses.
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