The genome of the japonica subspecies of rice, an important cereal and model monocot, was sequenced and assembled by whole-genome shotgun sequencing. The assembled sequence covers 93% of the 420-megabase genome. Gene predictions on the assembled sequence suggest that the genome contains 32,000 to 50,000 genes. Homologs of 98% of the known maize, wheat, and barley proteins are found in rice. Synteny and gene homology between rice and the other cereal genomes are extensive, whereas synteny with Arabidopsis is limited. Assignment of candidate rice orthologs to Arabidopsis genes is possible in many cases. The rice genome sequence provides a foundation for the improvement of cereals, our most important crops.
Comparative analysis of the sea urchin genome has broad implications for the primitive state of deuterostome host defense and the genetic underpinnings of immunity in vertebrates. The sea urchin has an unprecedented complexity of innate immune recognition receptors relative to other animal species yet characterized. These receptor genes include a vast repertoire of 222 Toll-like receptors, a superfamily of more than 200 NACHT domain-leucine-rich repeat proteins (similar to nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain (NOD) and NALP proteins of vertebrates), and a large family of scavenger receptor cysteine-rich proteins. More typical numbers of genes encode other immune recognition factors. Homologs of important immune and hematopoietic regulators, many of which have previously been identified only from chordates, as well as genes that are critical in adaptive immunity of jawed vertebrates, also are present. The findings serve to underscore the dynamic utilization of receptors and the complexity of immune recognition that may be basal for deuterostomes and predicts features of the ancestral bilaterian form.
Prolonged healing and scar formation are two major challenges in the treatment of soft tissue trauma. Adipose mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) play an important role in tissue regeneration, and recent studies have suggested that exosomes secreted by stem cells may contribute to paracrine signaling. In this study, we investigated the roles of ASCs-derived exosomes (ASCs-Exos) in cutaneous wound healing. We found that ASCs-Exos could be taken up and internalized by fibroblasts to stimulate cell migration, proliferation and collagen synthesis in a dose-dependent manner, with increased genes expression of N-cadherin, cyclin-1, PCNA and collagen I, III. In vivo tracing experiments demonstrated that ASCs-Exos can be recruited to soft tissue wound area in a mouse skin incision model and significantly accelerated cutaneous wound healing. Histological analysis showed increased collagen I and III production by systemic administration of exosomes in the early stage of wound healing, while in the late stage, exosomes might inhibit collagen expression to reduce scar formation. Collectively, our findings indicate that ASCs-Exos can facilitate cutaneous wound healing via optimizing the characteristics of fibroblasts. Our results provide a new perspective and therapeutic strategy for the use of ASCs-Exos in soft tissue repair.
Background and Objective: Hemodialysis (HD) patients are more inactive, leading to poor functional capacity and quality of life; this may be reversed with intradialytic exercise training. To systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of intradialytic exercise for HD patients, we conducted a meta-analysis of the published randomized controlled trials. Data Sources and Methods: Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were systematically searched up to February, 2014. The reference lists of eligible studies and relevant reviews were also checked. Results: 24 studies of 997 patients were included. Compared with control, intradialytic exercise significantly improve Kt/V (SMD = 0.27, 95% CI 0.01-0.53), peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) (SMD = 0.53, 95% CI 0.30-0.76), and physical performance of physical function of life (SMD = 0.30, 95% CI 0.04-0.55). However, no significant improvements were found in the mental function of life. There was no significant difference with respect to musculoskeletal and cardiovascular complications between the intradialytic exercise groups and control groups. Further subgroup analysis found that, when the trial duration was more than 6 months, the intervention had significant effects on VO2peak (SMD = 0.89, 95% CI 0.56-1.22). However, when the trial duration was less than 6 months, the change of VO2peak was not significant (SMD = 0.19, 95% CI -0.13 to 0.51). Conclusion: Intradialytic exercise can improve Kt/V, VO2peak, and the physical quality of life, and intradialytic exercise is safe for HD patients. Therefore, we put forward the suggestion that clinical guideline be updated to inform clinicians on the benefits of intradialytic exercise on HD patients. i 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel
The 3C-like proteinase (3CL pro ) of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is one of the most promising targets for anti-SARS-CoV drugs due to its crucial role in the viral life cycle. In this study, a database containing structural information of more than 8,000 existing drugs was virtually screened by a docking approach to identify potential binding molecules of SARS-CoV 3CL
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