This paper presents a new control strategy for a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) under unbalanced network voltage conditions. Coordinated control of the grid-and rotorside converters (GSC and RSC, respectively) during voltage unbalance is proposed. Under an unbalanced supply voltage, the RSC is controlled to eliminate the torque pulsation at double supply frequency. The oscillation of the stator output active power is then compensated by the active power output from the GSC, to ensure constant active power output from the overall DFIG generation system. In order to provide precise control of the positive-and negative-sequence currents of the GSC and RSC, a current control scheme consisting of a proportional integral (PI) controller and a resonant (R) compensator is presented. The PI plus R current regulator is implemented in the positive synchronous reference frame without the need to decompose the positiveand negative-sequence components. Simulations on a 1.
5-MW DFIG system and experimental tests on a 1.5-kW prototype validate the proposed strategy. Precise control of both positive-and negative-sequence currents and simultaneous elimination of torque and total active power oscillations have been achieved.
Index Terms-Converter, doubly fed induction generators (DFIGs), proportional integral (PI) plus resonant (R; PI-R), voltage unbalance, wind energy.
V g and I gGrid-side converter (GSC) output voltage and current vectors. V s and V r Stator and rotor voltage vectors. I s and I r Stator and rotor current vectors. ψ s and ψ r Stator and rotor flux linkage vectors. ω s , ω r , and ω slip Stator, rotor, and slip angular frequencies. P s and Q s Stator output active and reactive powers. P g and Q g GSC output active and reactive powers. P total Total output active from the doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) system.
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This paper presents a hybrid Modular Multilevel Converter (MMC), which combines full-bridge sub-modules (FBSM) and half-bridge sub-modules (HBSM). Compared with the FBSM based MMC, the proposed topology has the same dc fault blocking capability but uses fewer power devices hence has lower power losses. To increase power transmission capability of the proposed hybrid MMC, negative voltage states of the FBSMs are adopted to extend the output voltage range. The optimal ratio of FBSMs and HBSMs, and the number of FBSMs generating a negative voltage state are calculated to ensure successful dc fault blocking and capacitor voltage balancing. Equivalent circuits of each arm consisting of two individual voltage sources are proposed and two-stage selecting and sorting algorithms for ensuring capacitor voltage balancing are developed. Comparative studies for different circuit configurations show excellent performance balance for the proposed hybrid MMC, when considering dc fault blocking capability, power losses, and device utilization. Experimental results during normal operation and dc fault conditions demonstrate feasibility and validity the proposed hybrid MMC.
Control and operation of a dc microgrid, which can be operated at grid connected or island modes, are investigated in this paper. The dc microgrid consists of a wind turbine, a battery energy storage system, dc loads, and a grid-connected converter system. When the system is grid connected, active power is balanced through the grid supply during normal operation to ensure a constant dc voltage. Automatic power balancing during a grid ac fault is achieved by coordinating the battery energy storage system and the grid converter. To ensure that the system can operate under island conditions, a coordinated strategy for the battery system, wind turbine, and load management, including load shedding, are proposed. PSCAD/EMTDC simulations are presented to demonstrate the robust operation performance and to validate the proposed control system during various operating conditions, such as variations of wind power generation and load, grid ac faults, and islanding.
This paper proposes a new direct power control (DPC) strategy for a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG)-based wind turbine system. The required rotor control voltage, which eliminates active and reactive power errors within each fixed time period, is directly calculated based on stator flux, rotor position, and active and reactive powers and their corresponding errors.No extra power or current control loops are required, simplifying the system design, and improving transient performance. Constant converter switching frequency is achieved that eases the design of the power converter and the ac harmonic filter. Rotor voltage limit during transients is investigated, and a scheme is proposed that prioritizes the active and reactive power control such that one remains fully controlled while the error of the other is reduced. The impact of machine parameter variations on system performance is investigated and found negligible. Simulation results for a 2 MW DFIG system demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed control strategy during variations of active and reactive power, machine parameters, and wind speed.Index Terms-Constant switching frequency, DFIG, direct power control, pulse width modulation (PWM) converter, wind energy.
NOMENCLATURE θ s , θ rStator flux, rotor angles in the stationary frame. θPhase angle between the rotor and stator flux vectors. ω 1 , ω r , ω s
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