The objective of the study was to evaluate the growth and yields of selected varieties of Cornelian cherry (’Elegantní’, ’Fruchtal’, ’Jaltský’, ’Jolico’, ’Lukjanovský’, ’Vydubecký’, ’Vyšegorodský’) over a 5-year period. We evaluated the following: differences in growth, plant volume, external appearance, yield data and from samples of the fruit the composition and content of selected mineral elements. The following mineral elements were determined in the fruit samples: P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn, as well as other parameters: content of solids, degree of refraction, content of acids, vitamin C and pectin.Evaluations were carried out in 2007–2011 and statistically significant differences in the plant volume were discovered among the varieties; Vyšegorodský is a high-volume variety (3.25 m3); the volume of variety Jolico is small (1.86 m3). In terms of yields the variety Fruchtal ranks among the more productive varieties (6.99 kg.plant−1); in contrast the yields of the variety Jaltský were lower (5.07 kg. plant−1). Differences among the varieties were significant only in the contents of K, Mg, Na and Fe. The Ca and P contents ranged between 301 and 365 mg.kg−1 and 313 and 412 mg.kg−1, respectively. The K content in the fruit was the lowest in variety Vydubecký (3411 mg.kg−1) and the highest in the variety Fruchtal (3798 mg.kg−1). The Mg content was lower in varieties Elegantní (241 mg.kg−1) and Fruchtal (237 mg. kg−1); the Mg content was higher in varieties Jaltský (281 mg.kg−1), Jolico (288 mg.kg−1), Lukjanovský (292 mg. kg−1) and Vyšegorodský (290 mg.kg−1). The Na content was the lowest in the fruit of variety Fruchtal (58 mg.kg−1); the Na content was significantly higher in varieties Vydubecký (81 mg.kg−1) and Jaltský (82 mg.kg−1). The Zn content ranged between 2.65 and 3.52 mg.kg−1. The Fe content in fruit was the lowest in variety Fruchtal (41 mg.kg−1) and was significantly higher in variety Lukjanovský (49 mg.kg−1). The Cu content ranged between 1.09 and 1.74 mg.kg−1. The Mn content ranged between 24 and 29 mg.kg−1. The average degree of refraction was 15 o Bx. The acid content was significantly the highest in variety Fruchtal (2.78 %); the content was medium in varieties Elegantní (2.24 %) Jolico (2.28 %) and Vydubecký (2.11 %), and was significantly the lowest in variety Lukjanovský (1.76 %). No significant differences in the content of vitamin C were discovered among the varieties. The average content of vitamin C was 61 mg in 100 g of fresh mass of the fruit. The achieved data confirmed that Cornelian cherry is a valuable plant due to its undemanding cultivation, wide-ranging possibilities of its commercial use and its properties when used in landscape and ornamental gardening.
Total polyphenols content (TPC), antioxidant activity (AA) and polyphenolic spectrum assay of three underutilized fruit species—black crowberry (Empetrum nigrum), honeyberry (Lonicera kamtschatica) and European cranberry (Vaccinium oxycoccos) is the aim of the present work. TPC and AA assay was performed by spectrophotometry and “individual phenolic compounds” were established by high-performance liquid chromatography. The results showed that TPC ranged from 1.61 ± 0.16 (European cranberry) up to 5.65 ± 0.01 (Black cowberry) gallic acid mg/g fresh weight. The highest value of DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging assay was determined in black crowberry fruit (7.43 ± 0.34 mmol TROLOX/g fresh weight of fruit). In all samples, the most prevalent phenolic acid was ferulic acid with the highest content in the samples of black crowberry (77.73 ± 3.99 µg/g FW of fruit), black crowberry and honeyberry were present by the highest level of gallic acid (21.82 ± 1.53; 15.07 ± 2.45 µg/g FW of fruit). Honeyberry represented a valuable source of quercetin (12.18 ± 7.88 µg/g FW of fruit), whereas European cranberry and honeyberry are a source of rutin (28.48 ± 0.83 and 27.99 ± 1.78 µg/g FW of fruit, respectively). The results of statistical analyses proved significant differences between cowberry and European cranberry in TPC content and in AA among assayed species. In the same way, statistically significant differences were confirmed in phenolic acids among the assayed species except for European cranberry-honeyberry (in trans p-coumaric, protocatequic and cinnamic acid) and honeyberry-cowberry (in cinnamic acid content). The catechin content is significantly influenced by species (p ≤ 0.05), on the other hand the species has no influence on the resveratrol content (p > 0.05). Each of the studied species can be considered as valuable source of total polyphenols and individual phenolic compounds. Polyphenolic compounds were most frequently accumulated in the vacuole as well as in the outer layers of pericarp.
The article is dealing with evaluation of four fruit maturity stages of 6 selected clones (LKL-3, LKL-14, LKL-19, LKL-33, LKL-96 and LKL-103) of Lonicera kamtschatica (Sevast.) Pojark in relation to total polyphenols, flavonoids content and antioxidant activity of berries. The experiment in 5 replications of each clones has been established in the conditions of Botanical Garden in Nitra (Slovak republic)in 2016. The results of analyses proved that in respect of the total polyphenols content (TPC), the content of flavonoids (FC) and the antioxidant activity the most valuable clones at the stage of full ripened fruit were following: LKL-14 (8.77; 2.57 g/kg FW; 9.07 g/kg), LKL-33 (6.77; 2.84 g/kg FW; 9.16 g/kg) and LKL -3 (8.19; 2.61 g/kg FW; 8.94 g/kg). The results of statistical analyses by one-way analysis of variance proved significant differences among assayed clones in total flavonoids and antioxidant activity of fruit but no differences among content of total polyphenols and assayed stages of fruit maturity.
Physico-chemical changes included a significant decrease in firmness during post-harvest ripening, whereas the levels of total soluble solids were found to be very similar. Ethylene as a parameter of ripening contributed to the resolution of cultivars in the over-ripe phase. On the other hand, fruit softening was not a useful parameter for distinguishing cultivars. 59 of volatiles were determined by the static headspace SPME gas chromatography with mass spectrometry and included 18 alcohols, 12 aldehydes, 10 esters, 11 terpenes, 5 lactones and 3 miscellaneous. Actually, the production of alcohols at ripe stage had almost been completed, since at the over-ripe stage they increased only slightly. Terpene levels were highest for the medium-late cultivars (Orangered, Velkopavlovická, Pinco, Silvercot and Leskora); they were predominantly limonene, α-terpineol and β-Ionone. The decrease in the concentration of terpenes in over-ripe fruit was statistically significant. There are six compounds (2-methylbutan-1-ol, 2-methylbutanal, n-hexylbutanoate, 3-methyl-3-methylbutyric acid, γ-caprolactone and γ-octalactone) which taken together can be used to distinguish the two different stages of maturity, ripe and over-ripe. The most abundant of these are γ-caprolactone and γ-octalactone, followed by 2-methylbutan-1-ol. If the volatiles from the cultivars used in this investigation are compared using cv. Bergeron as a standard, then only 10 are required to separate each variety at the over-ripe phase. Principal component analysis clearly separated the cvs Velkopavlovická and Bergeron from all the others, which probably reflects major differences in the production of volatiles and ethylene.Keywords: volatile compounds; ethylene; respiration rate; firmness; HP-SPME-GC-MS Optimum fruit quality depends upon a number of factors, including the fruit developmental stage at the point of harvest and the subsequent changes during the period of post-harvest maturation. Ripening to achieve optimum quality means that there must be good aroma development (Botondi et al.
DOKOUPIL, L., ŘEZNÍČEK, V.: Columnar apple trees and their varieties. Acta univ. agric. et silvic. Mendel. Brun., 2012, LX, No. 8, pp. 37-48 The objective of the study was to evaluate selected varieties of columnar apple trees. The trees were monitored over a 3-year period and the focus was on growth, yield and health data. At the same time the quality of the harvested fruit was evaluated a er short storage. The varieties Polka, Bolero, Charlotte, Mc. Intosh Wijcik, Waltz and the control variety Golden Delicious were grown on rootstock M 9. The decisive data characterising the variety were: the height of the elongation, formation of the lateral fruiting spurs, number of fl owers and the amount of harvested fruit. No less important for growth was the health condition of the leaf area and particularly the incidence of fungus diseases; here the monitoring was carried out on six dates and was focused on apple scab and powdery mildew of apple. Infestation of the variety Charlotte with powdery mildew of apple was signifi cantly heavier than infestation of the other varieties. The variety Charlotte was also signifi cantly more aff ected with apple scab and diff ered from the other less infested varieties.
Temperature is the dominant environmental stimulus that influences the postharvest quality, visual appearance, and nutritional content of fruits. Temperature hastens fruit ripening and senescence by the impact on respiration rate and the acceleration of metabolic reactions. This study was conducted to select the optimized temperature for preserving the quality-related traits and antioxidant potential of cornelian cherry fruits after harvest. The fruits were treated with 1% chitosan and then kept under 0, 5, 10, and 21 °C for 21 days. The results revealed that fruits kept under lower than room temperature (21 °C) better retained antioxidant capacity and had higher levels of phenolics, flavonoids, and anthocyanins and even higher antioxidant enzyme activity, hence attaining prolonged postharvest life. Considering the quantity attributes and the shelf life, the temperature of choice was 0 °C. Zero temperature was also the best to keep the antioxidant capacity of cornelian cherry fruits. Overall, the results showed that low temperature and chitosan pretreatment provide an efficient method for maintaining the nutritional quality and antioxidant capacity of cornelian cherry fruits during storage time.
Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) have been proven to helpfully improve plant tolerance to several abiotic stresses. However, no information has been reported concerning the role of ZnO-NPs on pepper plants under salinity stress. Hence, this research aimed to evaluate the growth and physiological responses of pepper (Capsicum annum L.) plants to ZnO-NP foliar application under salinity. Plants were subjected to 0 (control), 25 (S1), 50 (S2), and 75 mM (S3) NaCl salinity with a foliar spray of 0, 1000, and 2000 ppm ZnO-NPs. Significant reductions were recorded in the chlorophyll index (SPAD) and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, and in the activity and/or ratios of reduced ascorbate (AsA), reduced ascorbate/dehydroascorbic acid (AsA/DHA), reduced glutathione (GSH), reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG), and K+ content. There was a significant increase in proline content, electrolyte leakage (EL), H2O2 content, guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), dehydroascorbic acid (DHA), and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) activities, and in Na+ content and Na+/K+ ratio. Foliar treatments improved the salinity tolerance of the pepper plants by fortifying the antioxidant defense system, leaf fluorescence parameters, K+, and proline content, and in contrast, by decreasing the EL, Na+, and H2O2 levels. ZnO-NP foliar treatment efficiently improved the pepper plants’ physiological responses under salinity. Considering the overall results, 1000 ppm of ZnO-NPs would be advisable for the amelioration of salinity depression and to promote growth potential. However, at higher levels, the nanoparticle showed toxicity symptoms that limited its reliable applications.
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