Comparative clinical effects of balanced crystalloids and saline are uncertain, particularly in noncritically ill patients cared for outside an intensive care unit (ICU).
We conducted a single-center, pragmatic, multiple-crossover trial comparing balanced crystalloids (lactated Ringer’s solution or Plasma-Lyte A) with saline among adults who were treated with intravenous crystalloids in the emergency department and were subsequently hospitalized outside an ICU. The type of crystalloid that was administered in the emergency department was assigned to each patient on the basis of calendar month, with the entire emergency department crossing over between balanced crystalloids and saline monthly during the 16-month trial. The primary outcome was hospital-free days (days alive after discharge before day 28). Secondary outcomes included major adverse kidney events within 30 days — a composite of death from any cause, new renal-replacement therapy, or persistent renal dysfunction (defined as an elevation of the creatinine level to ≥200% of baseline) — all censored at hospital discharge or 30 days, whichever occurred first.
A total of 13,347 patients were enrolled, with a median crystalloid volume administered in the emergency department of 1079 ml and 88.3% of the patients exclusively receiving the assigned crystalloid. The number of hospital-free days did not differ between the balanced-crystalloids and saline groups (median, 25 days in each group; adjusted odds ratio with balanced crystalloids, 0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92 to 1.04; P = 0.41). Balanced crystalloids resulted in a lower incidence of major adverse kidney events within 30 days than saline (4.7% vs. 5.6%; adjusted odds ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.70 to 0.95; P = 0.01).
Among noncritically ill adults treated with intravenous fluids in the emergency department, there was no difference in hospital-free days between treatment with balanced crystalloids and treatment with saline.
The present results indicate that SEPP1 concentration is the best plasma biomarker studied for assessing optimal expression of all selenoproteins, because its optimization required a larger intake of selenium than did GPX activity. On the basis of the selenium intake needed for SEPP1 optimization with adjustments for body weight and individual variation, ap 75 micro g Se/d as selenomethionine is postulated to allow full expression of selenoproteins in US residents. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00428649.
Rationale: Saline is the intravenous fluid most commonly administered to critically ill adults, but it may be associated with acute kidney injury and death. Whether use of balanced crystalloids rather than saline affects patient outcomes remains unknown.Objectives: To pilot a cluster-randomized, multiple-crossover trial using software tools within the electronic health record to compare saline to balanced crystalloids.Methods: This was a cluster-randomized, multiple-crossover trial among 974 adults admitted to a tertiary medical intensive care unit from February 3, 2015 to May 31, 2015. The intravenous crystalloid used in the unit alternated monthly between saline (0.9% sodium chloride) and balanced crystalloids (lactated Ringer's solution or PlasmaLyte A). Enrollment, fluid delivery, and data collection were performed using software tools within the electronic health record. The primary outcome was the difference between study groups in the proportion of isotonic crystalloid administered that was saline. The secondary outcome was major adverse kidney events within 30 days (MAKE30), a composite of death, dialysis, or persistent renal dysfunction.Measurements and Main Results: Patients assigned to saline (n = 454) and balanced crystalloids (n = 520) were similar at baseline and received similar volumes of crystalloid by 30 days (median [interquartile range]: 1,424 ml [500-3,377] vs. 1,617 ml [500-3,628]; P = 0.40). Saline made up a larger proportion of the isotonic crystalloid given in the saline group than in the balanced crystalloid group (91% vs. 21%; P , 0.001). MAKE30 did not differ between groups (24.7% vs. 24.6%; P = 0.98).Conclusions: An electronic health record-embedded, clusterrandomized, multiple-crossover trial comparing saline with balanced crystalloids can produce well-balanced study groups and separation in crystalloid receipt.Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 02345486).
RSV is a major cause of illness in hospitalized Jordanian children and is associated with increased severity compared to other respiratory viruses. Children with RSV in the Middle East would benefit from future RSV vaccines and antiviral therapy.
An ICU-RC identified a high prevalence of cognitive impairment, anxiety, depression, physical debility, lifestyle changes, and medication-related problems warranting intervention. Whether an ICU-RC can improve ICU recovery in the US should be investigated in a systematic way.
Antibody response to the inactivated influenza vaccine is not well described in kidney transplant recipients on newer, but commonly used, immunosuppression medications. We hypothesized that kidney transplant recipient participants on tacrolimus-based regimens would have decreased antibody response compared with healthy controls.
Prospective cohort study of 53 kidney transplant recipient and 106 healthy control participants over the 2006–2007 influenza season. All participants received standard inactivated influenza vaccine.
Setting and participants
Kidney transplant recipients on tacrolimus-based regimens at a single academic medical center and healthy controls.
Presence of kidney transplant.
Proportion of participants achieving seroresponse (four-fold rise in antibody titer) and seroprotection (antibody titer greater than 1:32) one month after vaccination.
Antibody titers before vaccination and one month after vaccination using hemagglutinin inhibition assays for influenza types A/H1N1, A/H3N2, and B.
A smaller proportion of the transplantation group compared with the healthy control group developed the primary outcomes of seroresponse or seroprotection for all three influenza types at one month post vaccination. The response to influenza type A/H3N2 was statistically different, with the transplantation group having 69% decreased odds of developing seroresponse (95% CI 0.16 to 0.62, P = 0.001) and 78% decreased odds of developing seroprotection (95% CI 0.09 to 0.53, P = 0.001) compared with healthy controls. When participants less than 6 months from time of transplantation were considered, this group had significantly decreased response to the vaccine as compared with healthy controls.
Decreased sample size; potential for confounders; outcome measure used is the standard but does not give information about vaccine efficacy.
Kidney transplant recipients, especially within 6 months of transplantation, had diminished antibody response to the 2006–07 inactivated influenza vaccine.
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is more common in those with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) than in unaffected individuals and recurs more frequently in the presence of severe OSA after electrical cardioversion and AF ablation. However, it is unknown whether severity of OSA influences the efficacy of anti-arrhythmic drug (AAD) therapy in patients with OSA and AF. This study examined the impact of OSA severity on treatment of symptomatic AF with AADs. We studied 61 patients (62 ± 15 years; 21 women) treated with AADs for symptomatic AF who had overnight polysomnography. Rhythm control was prospectively defined as successful if a patient remained on the same AAD therapy for a minimum of 6 months with ≥75% reduction in symptomatic AF burden. Twenty-four patients (40%) had severe OSA. Thirty patients (49%) were rhythm controlled with AADs. Non-responders to AADs were more likely to have severe OSA than milder disease (52% vs 23%; p < 0.05); those with severe OSA were less likely to respond to AADs than participants with non-severe OSA (39% vs 70%; p = 0.02). Non-responders had higher apnea-hypopnea indices than responders (34 ± 25 vs 22 ± 18 events/hour; p = 0.05), but there were no differences between these groups in minimum oxygen saturation or % time spent in REM sleep. In conclusion, patients with severe OSA are less likely to respond to AAD therapy for AF than those with milder forms of OSA.
BACKGROUNDAs accessible diagnostic approaches fail to differentiate between ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s colitis (CC) in one-third of patients with predominantly colonic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), leading to inappropriate therapy, we aim to investigate the serum cytokine levels in these patients in search of molecular biometric markers delineating UC from CC.METHODSWe measured 38 cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors using magnetic-bead-based multiplex immunoassay in 25 UC patients, 28 CC patients, and 30 controls. Our results are compared with those from a review of current literature regarding advances in serum cytokine profiles and associated challenges preventing their use for diagnostic/prognostic purposes.RESULTSUnivariate analysis showed statistically significant increases of eotaxin, GRO, and TNF-α in UC patients compared to controls (Ctrl); interferon γ, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-7 in CC group compared to Ctrl; and IL-8 in both UC and CC versus Ctrl. No cytokines were found to be different between UC and CC. A generalized linear model identified combinations of cytokines, allowing the identification of UC and CC patients, with area under the curve (AUC) = 0.936, as determined with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis.CONCLUSIONSThe current knowledge available about circulating cytokines in IBD is often contradictory. The development of an evidence-based tool using cytokines for diagnostic accuracy is still preliminary.
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