Purpose - This paper aims to explore the factors affecting consumers' loyalty toward online games based on the uses and gratifications theory and the flow theory. \ud
Design/methodology/approach - The research employed two approaches to collect data: personal interview and online survey. Each data collection approach consists of two phases to overcome method bias. This study adopted structural equation modeling to analyze the data. \ud
Findings - The results focusing on popular massively multiplayer online role-playing games reveal that players' sense of control, perceived entertainment, and challenge affect their loyalty toward an online game. Conversely, sociality and interactivity produce negligible effects on loyalty. \ud
Practical implications - First, game designers may strengthen gamers' sense of control and challenge by adding more status information, gaming options, or through the designed system of goals and achievements. Second, the entertaining nature of online gaming suggests greater demand for content design, and points to the direction of mobile gaming. Third, considering the recent growth of online social network services, consumers regard online games as lower priority when prompted by socially related motives. Additionally, people mostly reckon online relationships as virtual and not gratifying real-world social needs. \ud
Originality/value - In view of the prevalence of computer and Internet usage, online gaming research should shift more focus toward the non-technological aspects of gaming. This paper is one of the few studies that examine online game loyalty from the non-technological aspects while adopting a multi-disciplinary approach based on theoretical parsimony
The authors report measurements of the electrical resistivity, Seebeck coefficient, and thermal conductivity for a series of misfit-layered oxides Ca3Co4−xFexO9+δ (x=0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2) prepared by solid state reaction. Structural parameters are refined with superspace group of X2∕m(0b0)s0 using powder x-ray diffraction data. With partial substitution of Fe+2 for Co+3, the resistivity decreases, while the thermopower increases simultaneously. The x=0.05 sample exhibits a higher figure of merit (Z=3.01×10−4K−1) than that of Ca3Co4O9+δ (0.33×10−4K−1) at 300K, indicating much improvement of thermoelectric characteristics via partial substitution of Fe for Co.
Primarily antiviral resistance related mutant strains do exist in treatment naïve patients. Without antiviral pressure, HBV strains evolved at a normal speed. In depth sequence analysis implied that viral replication might be correlated with its variability, which needs to be further investigated.
While a large amount of research has been conducted in the West on domestic violence related issues, only a small number of studies have focused specifically on Chinese societies. Using survey data collected from Beijing, Hong Kong, and Taipei, this study compares college students' preferences for traditional and proactive police intervention into domestic violence and assesses the determinants of such preferences in the three Chinese societies. The findings indicate that Hong Kong students showed the highest level of support for traditional police response, followed by students in Beijing and Taipei, while students in Taipei displayed the strongest preference for proactive police response, followed by students in Hong Kong and Beijing. College students' preferences for traditional police response were shaped mainly by their locality, whereas their preferences for proactive police intervention were influenced chiefly by their attitudes toward violence and gender roles. Directions for future research are discussed.
We report measurements of magnetothermopower and magnetoresistivity as a function of temperature on RuSr 2 Gd 1-x La x Cu 2 O 8 (x = 0, 0.1). The normal-state thermopower shows a dramatic decrease after applying a magnetic field of 5 T, whereas the resistivity shows only a small change after applying the same field. Our results suggest that RuO 2 layers are conducting and the magnetic field induced decrease of the overall thermopower is caused by the decrease of partial thermopower associated with the spin entropy decrease of the carriers in the RuO 2 layers.
SettingDiabetes mellitus (DM) may increase risk of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and influence its radiological manifestations.ObjectiveTo evaluate the impact of glycemic status on radiological findings of PTB in diabetic patients.MethodsBetween January 2010 and December 2015, chest radiographs (CXRs) in consecutive 214 DM patients with culture-proved PTB and 123 available thoracic computed tomography (CT) scans were enrolled. An equal number of non-DM patients with similar demographics was included as the control group. Glycemic status was assessed by glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and a cutoff of 8% was used to further investigate radiological features of diabetic PTB. Two radiologists and one pulmonologist reviewed the chest images independently.ResultsCompared with non-DM patients, primary PTB pattern and extensive disease on CXRs as well as primary PTB pattern, large non-cavitary nodule, more than one cavity in a single lesion, unusual location, and all lobe involvement of lesions on thoracic CT scans were more common in DM patients. Furthermore, diabetics with HbA1c > 8% were more likely to exhibit unusual findings (P < 0.001), far advanced extensive lesions (P < 0.001) on CXRs, lymphadenopathy (P = 0.028), more than one cavity in a single lesion (P < 0.001) and all lobe involvement (P = 0.041) on thoracic CT scans.ConclusionsGlycemic status influenced radiological manifestations of diabetic PTB. Given an increased risk of atypical radiological presentations of PTB in DM patients, physicians should be alert and pay more attention to those with poor glycemic control.
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