Background: Progress in robotic printing technology has allowed the development of high-density nucleic acid and protein arrays that have increased the throughput of a variety of assays. We generated protein microarrays by printing microbial antigens to simultaneously determine in human sera antibodies directed against Toxoplasma gondii, rubella virus, cytomegalovirus (CMV), and herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2 (ToRCH antigens). Methods: The antigens were printed on activated glass slides with high-speed robotics. The slides were incubated first with serum samples and subsequently with fluorescently labeled secondary antibodies. Human IgG and IgM bound to the printed antigens were detected by confocal scanning microscopy and quantified with internal calibration curves. Both microarrays and commercial ELISAs were utilized to detect serum antibodies against the ToRCH antigens in a panel of characterized human sera. Results: The detection limit (mean + 2 SD) of the microarray assay was 0.5 pg of IgG or IgM bound to the slides. Within-slide, between-slide, and between-batch precision profiles showed CVs of 1.7–18% for all antigens. Overall, >80% concordance was obtained between microarray assays and ELISAs in the classification of sera; for T. gondii, CMV, and HSV1, concordance exceeded 90%. Conclusions: The microarray is a suitable assay format for the serodiagnosis of infectious diseases and can be easily optimized for clinical use. The ToRCH assay performs equivalently to ELISA and may have potentially important advantages in throughput, convenience, and cost.
Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a pleiotropic cytokine and a crucial mediator of inflammatory and immune responses. IL-1β processing and release are tightly controlled by complex pathways such as NF-kB/ERK1/2, to produce pro-IL-1β, and NALP3/ASC/Caspase-1 inflammasome, to produce the active secreted protein. Dysregulation of both IL-1β and its related pathways is involved in inflammatory/autoimmune disorders and in a wide range of other diseases. Identifying molecules modulating their expression is a crucial need to develop new therapeutic agents. IL-1β is a strong regulator of Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP), a hormone involved in cardiovascular homeostasis by guanylyl cyclase Natriuretic Peptide Receptor (NPR-1). An emerging role of BNP in inflammation and immunity, although proposed, remains largely unexplored. Here, we newly demonstrated that, in human THP-1 monocytes, LPS/ATP-induced IL-1β secretion is strongly inhibited by BNP/NPR-1/cGMP axis at all the molecular mechanisms that tightly control its production and release, NF-kB, ERK 1/2, and all the elements of NALP3/ASC/Caspase-1 inflammasome cascade, and that NALP3 inflammasome inhibition is directly related to BNP deregulatory effect on NF-kB/ERK 1/2 activation. Our findings reveal a novel potent anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory role for BNP and open new alleys of investigation for a possible employment of this endogenous agent in the treatment of inflammatory/immune-related and IL-1β/NF-kB/ERK1/2/NALP3/ASC/Caspase-1-associated diseases.
Our data represent the first systematic demonstration that GLOI cannot be considered a general marker of cell proliferation and that acts as a pro-survival factor in invasive PC3 cells by elusing apoptosis. GLOI may be involved in prostate cancer progression, via the control of key molecules in the mitochondrial apoptotic mechanism, through NF-kB signaling pathway.
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is an hormone/paracrine/autocrine factor regulating cardiovascular homeostasis by guanylyl cyclase natriuretic peptide receptor (NPR-1). ANP plays an important role also in regulating inflammatory and immune systems by altering macrophages functions and cytokines secretion. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a potent pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in a wide range of biological responses, including the immunological one. Unlike other cytokines, IL-1β production is rigorously controlled. Primarily, NF-kB activation is required to produce pro-IL-1β; subsequently, NALP3 inflammasome/caspase-1 activation is required to cleave pro-IL-1β into the active secreted protein. NALP3 is a molecular platform capable of sensing a large variety of signals and a major player in innate immune defense. Due to their pleiotropism, IL-1β and NALP3 dysregulation is a common feature of a wide range of diseases. Therefore, identifying molecules regulating IL-1β/NALP3/caspase-1 expression is an important step in the development of new potential therapeutic agents. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of ANP on IL-1β/NALP3/caspase-1 expression in LPS/ATP-stimulated human THP1 monocytes. We provided new evidence of the direct involvement of ANP/NPR-1/cGMP axis on NF-kB/NALP3/caspase-1-mediated IL-1β release and NF-kB-mediated pro-IL-1β production. In particular, ANP inhibited both NF-kB and NALP3/caspase-1 activation leading to pro- and mature IL-1β down-regulation. Our data, pointing out a modulatory role of this endogenous peptide on IL-1β release and on NF-kB/NALP3/caspase-1 activation, indicate an important anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effect of ANP via these mechanisms. We suggest a possible employment of ANP for the treatment of inflammatory/immune-related diseases and IL-1β/NALP3-associated disorders, affecting millions of people worldwide.
Neuroinflammation, characterized by the appearance of reactive microglial and astroglial cells, is one of the several pathogenic mechanisms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a fast-progressing and fatal neurodegenerative disease. Cerebrospinal fluid and spinal cord of ALS patients and SOD1 mutant mice show high concentrations of IL-1β. This interleukin, expressed as an inactive precursor, undergoes a proteolytic maturation by caspase1, whose activation, in turn, depends on inflammasomes. Whether and how inflammasome is activated in ALS models is still to be clarified. The mechanism of inflammasome activation was studied in murine microglial cells overexpressing hSOD1(G93A) and verified in the spinal cord of hSOD1(G93A) mice. Murine microglial hSOD1(G93A) cells express all the inflammasome components and LPS activates caspase1 leading to an increase in the secretion of IL-1β. By activating NF-κB, LPS increases ROS and NO levels that spontaneously react to form peroxynitrite, thus leading to protein nitration. Reduction in peroxynitrite levels results in a decrease in caspase1 activity. Protein nitration and caspase1 activity are concomitantly increased in the spinal cord of pre-symptomatic SOD1(G93A) mice. Oxidative/nitrosative stress induces peroxynitrite formation that may be a key trigger of caspase1/inflammasome activation. Peroxynitrite formation may play a critical role in inflammasome activation and might be exploited as potential therapeutic target for ALS.
Prostate cancer (PCa) progression is strictly associated with microenvironmental conditions, which can be modified by cancer-released extracellular vesicles (EVs), important mediators of cell-cell communication. However, the role of EVs in the inflammatory cross-talk between cancer cells and microenvironment-residing cells remains largely unknown. To evaluate the role of EVs in the tumour microenvironment, we treated the non-cancerous prostate cell line PNT2 with EVs isolated from advanced-stage prostate cancer PC3 (PC3-EVs). Caspase-1-mediated IL-1β maturation was evaluated after 24 h incubation with EVs. Moreover, the effect of PC3-EVs on differentiated macrophagic THP-1 cells was assessed by analyzing cytokine expression and PC3 cells migration and proliferation profiles. We illustrated that PC3 cells contain active NLRP3-inflammasome cascade and secrete IL-1β. PC3-EVs affect the PNT2 inflammatory response, inducing caspase-1-mediated IL-1β maturation via ERK1/2-mediated lysosomal destabilization and cathepsin B activation. We also verified that PC3-EVs induce a functional TAM-like polarization in differentiated THP-1 cells. Our results demonstrated that cancer-derived EVs induce an inflammatory response in non-cancerous prostate cells, while inducing an immunomodulatory phenotype in immune cells. These apparently contradictory effects are both committed to strengthening the tumour-promoting microenvironment
Aims: To generate protein microarrays by printing microbial antigens on slides to enable the simultaneous determination in human sera of antibodies directed against Toxoplasma gondii, rubella virus, cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2. Methods and Results: Antigens were printed on activated glass slides using high-speed robotics. The slides were incubated with serum samples and subsequently with fluorescently labelled secondary antibodies. Human IgG and IgM bound to the printed antigens were detected using confocal scanning microscopy and quantified with internal calibration curves. The microarray assay could detect as little as 0AE5 pg of both IgG and IgM bound onto the glass surface. Precision profiles ranged from 1AE7 to 18AE5% for all the antigens. Microarrays and commercial ELISAs were utilized to detect serum antibodies against the ToRCH antigens in a panel of characterized human sera. Overall >80% concordance was obtained between microarray and ELISA kits in the classification of sera. Conclusions: These results indicate that the microarray is a suitable assay format for the serodiagnosis of infectious diseases. Significance and Impact of Study: Antigen microarrays can be optimized for clinical use, their performance is equivalent to ELISA but they offer significant advantages in throughput, convenience and cost.
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