In this work, we demonstrate the first example of fully printed carbon nanomaterials on paper with unique features, aiming the fabrication of functional electronic and electrochemical devices. Bare and modified inks were prepared by combining carbon black and cellulose acetate to achieve high-performance conductive tracks with low sheet resistance. The carbon black tracks withstand extremely high folding cycles (>20 000 cycles), a new record-high with a response loss of less than 10%. The conductive tracks can also be used as 3D paper-based electrochemical cells with high heterogeneous rate constants, a feature that opens a myriad of electrochemical applications. As a relevant demonstrator, the conductive ink modified with Prussian-blue was electrochemically characterized proving to be very promising toward the detection of hydrogen peroxide at very low potentials. Moreover, carbon black circuits can be fully crumpled with negligible change in their electrical response. Fully printed motion and wearable sensors are additional examples where bioinspired microcracks are created on the conductive track. The wearable devices are capable of efficiently monitoring extremely low bending angles including human motions, fingers, and forearm. Here, to the best of our knowledge, the mechanical, electronic, and electrochemical performance of the proposed devices surpasses the most recent advances in paper-based devices.
ResumoEste estudo teve como objetivo investigar as estratégias de coping adotadas por crianças vítimas e não vítimas de violência doméstica, quando inseridas no microssistema escolar. Participaram da pesquisa 87 crianças divididas em dois grupos: 49 vítimas e 38 não vítimas de violência doméstica, as quais responderam a uma entrevista estruturada nas suas escolas, que visava a identificar os problemas mais freqüentes experienciados com os professores e com os colegas e as estratégias de coping utilizadas. As crianças vítimas de violência doméstica apontaram como problema de maior freqüência as agressões verbais por parte da professora e a estratégia de coping de agredir fisicamente para lidar nos conflitos com seus pares. As crianças não vítimas citaram com maior freqüência a busca de apoio de outras pessoas como estratégia para lidar com seus problemas junto aos colegas. As meninas adotaram a inação, quando enfrentam problemas com seus professores e se incomodam mais com as agressões verbais destes. Os resultados são discutidos levando em conta o contexto ecológico e as relações hierárquicas e apontam subsídios para programas de intervenção, que promovam resiliência e adaptação sadia de criançasà escola. Palavras-chave: Coping; microssistema escolar; agressividade; resiliência; risco; proteção.
Coping Strategies of Domestic Violence Victimized and Non Victimized Children AbstractThe present study aimed to investigate coping strategies of domestic violence victimized and non-victimized children in schools microsystem. Eighty-seven children, divided in two groups participated in this study: 49 victimized and 38 nonvictimized children. They answered a structured interview to identify the most frequent conflicts faced with teachers and classmates and the coping strategies to deal with those issues. The victimized children reported higher frequency of verbal aggression from teachers, and physical aggressions as coping strategies to deal with peers. The non-victimized children seemed to look for others support as coping strategies to deal with problems they have with their classmates. Girls did not seem to act when they faced problems with their teachers, and they felt more upset with teachers verbal aggression. Results are discussed based on the ecological context and hierarchical relations, and give subsidies out to support intervention programs, to promote resilience and childrens healthy adaptation to school. Keywords: Coping; school system; aggression; resilience; risk; protection.A divulgação de notícias sobre violência doméstica atinge proporções alarmantes atualmente. Pesquisas, conferências, fóruns de debates, colóquios e livros são apresentados em profusão sobre esta questão, mas as políticas públicas ainda necessitam de aperfeiçoamento e maior comprometimento social para enfrentar esta realidade. O conhecimento de casos de abuso e violência, especialmente contra crianças e mulheres, pode ser reflexo dos avanços na comunicação e da globalização, mas pode sugerir que as intervenções e programas de prevenção ...
The Achilles tendon has a high incidence of rupture, and the healing process leads to a disorganized extracellular matrix (ECM) with a high rate of injury recurrence. To evaluate the effects of different conditions of low-level laser (LLL) application on partially tenotomized tendons, adult male rats were divided into the following groups: G1, intact; G2, injured; G3, injured + LLL therapy (LLLT; 4 J/cm(2) continuous); G4, injured + LLLT (4 J/cm(2), 20 Hz); G5, injured; G6, injured + LLLT (4 J/cm(2) continuous); and G7, injured + LLLT (4 J/cm(2), 20 Hz until the 7th day and 2 kHz from 8 to 14 days). G2, G3, and G4 were euthanized 8 days after injury, and G5, G6, and G7 were euthanized on the 15th day. The quantification of hydroxyproline (HOPro) and non-collagenous protein (NCP), zymography for matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, and Western blotting (WB) for collagen types I and III were performed. HOPro levels showed a significant decrease in all groups (except G7) when compared with G1. The NCP level increased in all transected groups. WB for collagen type I showed an increase in G4 and G7. For collagen type III, G4 presented a higher value than G2. Zymography for MMP-2 indicated high values in G4 and G7. MMP-9 increased in both treatment groups euthanized at 8 days, especially in G4. Our results indicate that the pulsed LLLT improved the remodeling of the ECM during the healing process in tendons through activation of MMP-2 and stimulation of collagen synthesis.
RESUMOEm sistema de integração lavoura-pecuária, os diversos cultivos em sistema plantio direto alteram os atributos físicos do solo, refletindo sobre a produtividade e a composição vegetal. O objetivo deste trabalho foi indicar atributos do solo com melhor correlação com a produtividade e teor de proteína da Brachiaria brizantha.
Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis NCDO 2118 was recently reported to alleviate colitis symptoms via its anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities, which are exerted by exported proteins that are not produced by L. lactis subsp. lactis IL1403. Here, we used in vitro and in silico approaches to characterize the genomic structure, the safety aspects, and the immunomodulatory activity of this strain. Through comparative genomics, we identified genomic islands, phage regions, bile salt and acid stress resistance genes, bacteriocins, adhesion-related and antibiotic resistance genes, and genes encoding proteins that are putatively secreted, expressed in vitro and absent from IL1403. The high degree of similarity between all Lactococcus suggests that the Symbiotic Islands commonly shared by both NCDO 2118 and KF147 may be responsible for their close relationship and their adaptation to plants. The predicted bacteriocins may play an important role against the invasion of competing strains. The genes related to the acid and bile salt stresses may play important roles in gastrointestinal tract survival, whereas the adhesion proteins are important for persistence in the gut, culminating in the competitive exclusion of other bacteria. Finally, the five secreted and expressed proteins may be important targets for studies of new anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory proteins. Altogether, the analyses performed here highlight the potential use of this strain as a target for the future development of probiotic foods.
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