Measurement of extravascular lung water using transpulmonary thermodilution with a single indicator is very closely correlated with gravimetric measurement of lung water in both increased permeability and hydrostatic pulmonary edema.
The repeated waves of the COVID-19 pandemic have highlighted the necessity to optimize vaccine responses in immunocompromised populations. We investigated the safety and immunogenicity of a third, booster, dose of the Pfizer BNT162b2 vaccine in heart transplant (HT) patients.
The cohort comprised 96 adult HT patients who received a third homologous dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine 168 days after the second dose. The vaccine-induced antibody responses of both receptor-binding domain (RBD) IgG and neutralizing antibodies were assessed in all patients, with a positive antibody response being defined as the presence of either IgG anti-RBD or neutralizing antibodies. For a subset of patients, T cell response was also studied.
The third dose was associated with a low rate of adverse events, mostly mild pain at the injection site. No serious adverse events were recorded, and there were no episodes of rejection. At 18 days following the third dose of the vaccine, the positive antibody response increased from 23% to 67%, with a corresponding increase in neutralizing capacity. The third dose elicited SARS-CoV-2 neutralization titers >9-fold and IgG anti-RBD antibodies >3-fold of the range achieved after the two primary doses. Mycophenolate use, lower eGFR and higher C-reactive protein were independently associated with a reduced likelihood of generating an immune response. Importantly, a specific T-cell response following the third dose was evident in the majority of transplant recipients.
An homologous third booster dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine gave overall consistent tolerability and a good safety profile, while eliciting humoral and cellular immune responses.
Prevalence of intramuscular coronary arteries on CCTA is in concordance with most pathological reports and higher than in angiographic series. The CCTA clearly showed presence, course, and anatomical features of intramuscular coronary arteries. Coronary computed tomographic angiography may provide potentially useful information in the preoperative evaluation of candidates for coronary bypass surgery.
Data on the safety and efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in immunocompromised populations are sparse. We conducted a prospective study of 77 heart transplant (HT) recipients vaccinated with two doses of BNT162b2 vaccine and monitored for adverse events following both doses, the receptor-binding domain (RBD) IgG response, and neutralizing antibodies. BNT162b2 vaccination was associated with a low rate of adverse events, characterized mostly by pain at the injection site. By a mean 41 days post second dose there were no clinical episodes of rejection, as suggested by a troponin leak or allograft dysfunction. At a mean 21 days following the second dose, IgG anti-RBD antibodies were detectable in 14 (18%) HT recipients. Immune sera neutralized SARS-CoV-2 pseudo-virus in 8 (57%) of those with IgG anti-RBD antibodies. Immunosuppressive regimen containing mycophenolic acid was associated with lower odds of an antibody response (OR=0.12, P=0.042). Whether a longer time-frame for observation of an antibody response is required after vaccination in immunosuppressed individuals remains unknown.
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