El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el comportamiento de tres cultivares de café (Catimor,
<p><strong>Background</strong>. Currently, agricultural production systems are intensives and develop in a context of climate change, soil degradation, environmental pollution, and scarce resources. Thus, it is necessary to know the level of sustainability of agroecosystems and its implications in economic, environmental and social terms. <strong>Objective</strong>. The aimed of this research was to carry out a systematic review of the methodologies used to evaluate the economic, environmental and social sustainability of agricultural production systems (SPA). <strong>Methodology</strong>. The study was carried out in accordance with the PRISMA statement (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyzes), a systematic literature study was carried out in the global databases ScienceDirect, JSTOR, SpringerLink, Dialnet, Google Scholar, Google Academic, using as search terms using the Boolean operator: “evaluation, methodologies, agricultural sustainability”. Zotero (www.zotero.org), a free access manager for bibliographic references, was used. In the case of Peru, the database of the Doctoral Program in Sustainable Agriculture of the Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina (PDAS-UNALM) was reviewed. <strong>Results</strong>. Twenty-two frameworks or methodological proposals were found. Some frameworks and methodological proposals focus on the construction of indicators of environmental and economic sustainability and to a lesser extent social ones; others in defining sustainability indices, synthesizing values of economic, environmental and social indicators in a single numerical value; and another group that develop conceptual evaluation frameworks with a hierarchical structure of the indicators, start from attributes or objectives, perform the comparison of reference and alternative production systems, and due to their flexibility, they are applicable in different SPAs. In 88% of the sustainability study cases in Peru, the methodological proposal of "Multicriteria Analysis" was used, explained by its low cost, easy definition and interpretation of indicators and adaptable to evaluate the sustainability of most SPA from Peru. <strong>Implications.</strong> The application of methodologies to evaluate the economic, environmental and social sustainability of agricultural production systems are not rigid, in some cases they can be adapted or modified according to the criteria of the researchers based on the characteristics of the agroecosystems. <strong>Conclusions</strong>. For the evaluation of the sustainability of SPAs where a large amount of information with economic, environmental and social variables is involved, there are alternatives such as frameworks or methodological proposals that can be adapted according to the objectives, spatial analysis or their multidimensional nature. In cases of SPA sustainability analysis studies in Peru carried out between 2012 and 2020, it was found that 88% used the methodological proposal of Sarandón and Flores (2009) based on the "Multicriteria Analysis" and define the levels of sustainability with indices.</p>
<p><strong>Background.</strong> Cocoa is a traditional crop and source of economic income for Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas, Ecuador. <strong>Objective.</strong> The objective of this research was to evaluate the sustainability of cocoa-producing farms in the province of Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas, Ecuador. <strong>Methodology</strong>. The methodology used to evaluate sustainability was a "Multicriteria Analysis". To obtain information on each of the cocoa farms, a personal survey was conducted with questions related to the three dimensions of sustainability (economic, ecological, sociocultural). Indicators, sub-indicators and quantifiable variables adapted to cocoa cultivation were used to analyze each dimension and general sustainability. <strong>Results.</strong> In this study, it was found that the number of sustainable farms were different from one locality to another, corresponding to the locality of San Jacinto del Búa, the highest number of sustainable farms. At the province level, almost half of cocoa producers (48%) have sustainable farms, that is, they had the three indicators (IK, IE, ISC) and the general sustainability index (I Gen), with values higher than two. <strong>Implications.</strong> In the general analysis of sustainability, one can find “critical points”, at the level of the cocoa sector, such as education and economic risk; but at the farm level, it would be the diversity of nutrient production and recycling. The need to work and eliminate these “critical points” is important, since it would allow sustainability to be achieved on farms that have not yet achieved it, and maintain it for those that have already achieved it. However, the sustainability graphs are very illustrative since in all cases, triangles are drawn with the three sides of practically similar size, which suggests a balance between the three dimensions in said system and is the graph that would best represent the idea of sustainability, as it suggests an equal assessment of the three dimensions of sustainability. <strong>Conclusions.</strong> The sustainability of cocoa-producing farms varies from one place to another and the factors that explain it are also different. The largest number of sustainable farms are found in the town of San Jacinto del Búa; but at the level of the province of Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas, less than half of the farms are sustainable. The main “critical points”, at the level of the cocoa sector, are education and economic risk; but at the farm level, it is the diversity of nutrient production and recycling. In the three localities and in the province, sustainability graphs a triangle with three sides of practically similar size, which suggests a balance between the three dimensions, that is, an equal assessment of the three dimensions of sustainability.</p>
Introduction. Ecuador occupies the fourth place in cocoa exports with 293,487 tons per year, produced on 559,617 hectares. However, its yield per hectare is low mainly due to the presence of pathogens that affect the pods. Objective. To evaluates different methods of control of pathogens of the Theobroma cacao cv ‘CCN-51’ pod. Materials and methods. The work was carried out in Luz de America, Santo Domingo de los Tsachilas, Ecuador, between 2016 and 2017. The treatments were the result of the combination of cultural practices + two fungicides (Chlorothalonil and Pyraclostrobin) + one biofungicide Serenade® (Bacillus subtilis QST713), with and without fertilizers. In total, 16 treatments were evaluated with 3 replicates or blocks, installed in a commercial cocoa plantation cv ‘CCN-51’ and under a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). Results. The use of fungicides (chemical and biological), decreased the incidence of moniliasis (Moniliophthora roreri), black pod rot (Phytophthora spp.), and cherelle wilt; but the application of fertilizers did not increase the effectiveness of these products. Treatment with only cultural practices did not decrease the final incidence of moniliasis, nor of brown rot, in contrast, the final incidence of cherelle wilt increased. The number of pods and the yield were not directly related and the highest yield of fermented and dry cocoa, corresponded to T9 [Cultural labors + Serenade® (0.2 kg ha-1) (every 15 days) + Fertilizer (0.3 kg ha-1) + Fertilizer (1 kg plant-1)], a treatment that also had the highest net income per hectare. Conclusion. Chemical and biological control can manage cocoa pods pathogens. The integration of both control methods allowed the cocoa producer to obtain greater income.
La agricultura es una de las actividades más importantes del ser humano. Esta actividad no solo aporta riqueza a los países, sino también, es de vital importancia para la seguridad alimentaria. Con la finalidad de atender una demanda de alimentos cada vez en aumento, se ha venido usando diferentes insumos agrícolas, entre ellos destacan los reguladores de crecimiento, los mismos, que están relacionados con el crecimiento y desarrollo de las plantas. Estos reguladores de crecimiento contienen hormonas cuyo rol en diferentes procesos metabólicos de las plantas ha sido ampliamente estudiado, sin embargo, la información sistematizada sobre su uso práctico en la agricultura es aun escaso. Esta información es clave puesto que puede ser usada por diversos investigadores agrarios, para potenciales aplicaciones en nuevos cultivos. En este contexto, esta revisión busca sistematizar la información sobre el descubrimiento, síntesis y uso práctico de reguladores de crecimiento en la agricultura. 2020. Journal of the Selva Biosphere ® . Bolivia. Todos los derechos reservados.
Introduction. Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) is an important crop in producing countries like Peru, where approximately two million families depend on its production, distribution, and marketing. But in recent years, climate change has increased the presence of coffee leaf rust - CLR (H. vastatrix), a disease that has decreased Peruvian production by up to 27%. Objective. Monitor the severity of CLR in different genotypes of coffee cv. Typica from April-2017 to March-2018. Material and methods. The experiment was carried out in the coffee germplasm bank at the Development Regional Institute (IRD)-Selva of the Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. The severity and the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) in the lower, middle, and upper part of coffee trees were quantified. Result. There was high severity and AUDPC in the dry season (low precipitation) compared to the rainy season (high precipitation). Severity and AUDPC gradually decreased from the bottom to the top of the plant (lower>middle>upper). Also, UNACAF-24A, UNACAF-16, UNACAF-158, and UNACAF-162 genotypes stood out by showing lowest severity (0-1.1 %) and AUDPC (0-714) in the experiment. Conclusion. In this experiment, the genotypes in dry season presented high peaks of severity and UDPC of CLR, meanwhile, in rainy season the presence of CLR was lower. However, in both seasons, severity and AUDPC gradually decreased from the lower third to the upper thirf of the plant. Finally, UNACAF-24A, UNACAF-16, UNACAF-158, and UNACAF-162 presented the lowest degrees of severity of CLR.
Coffee is an important product in the world, essential for thousands of producing families. However, climate change has generated variations in temperature and precipitation that negatively impact the maturation of crops. To quantify the combined effect of drought stress and elevated temperatures, plants of Coffea arabica cv. Ouro Verde IAC H5010-5 were evaluated under the climatic conditions of La Molina, Peru, with four treatments (WT: 100% available water + air temperature (22.7°C); -WT: < 50% available water + air temperature (22.7°C); W+T: 100% available water + elevated air temperature (22.7 + 2.5°C), and –W+T: < 50% available water + elevated air temperature (22.7 + 2.5°C)). In general, morphological indices were decreased by -WT and –W+T (P≤0.05). Plants subjected to -W+T, significantly affected quality indices like root:shoot ratio, robustness, and Dickson (P≤0.05). The -WT plants had a nitrogen content of 2.46%, the highest nitrogen content compared to other treatments. Isolated and combined stress had negative differential effects on plant development, and water scarcity (as an individual factor) was the repercussion, in most cases, that was more prominent than the effect of high temperature.
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