Although physiological steroid levels are often pulsatile (ultradian), the genomic effects of this pulsatility are poorly understood. By utilizing glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signaling as a model system, we uncovered striking spatiotemporal relationships between receptor loading, lifetimes of the DNase I hypersensitivity sites (DHSs), long-range interactions, and gene regulation. We found that hormone-induced DHSs were enriched within ±50 kb of GR-responsive genes and displayed a broad spectrum of lifetimes upon hormone withdrawal. These lifetimes dictate the strength of the DHS interactions with gene targets and contribute to gene regulation from a distance. Our results demonstrate that pulsatile and constant hormone stimulations induce unique, treatment-specific patterns of gene and regulatory element activation. These modes of activation have implications for corticosteroid function in vivo and for steroid therapies in various clinical settings.
BackgroundOct4 is a specific marker of embryonic stem cell (ESC) pluripotency. However, little is known regarding how Oct4 responds to DNA damage. Here, we investigated whether Oct4 recognizes damaged chromatin in mouse ESCs stably expressing GFP-Oct4. These experiments should contribute to the knowledge of how ESC genomic integrity is maintained, which is crucial for potential application of human ESCs in regenerative medicine.Methodology/Principal FindingsWe used time-lapse confocal microscopy, microirradiation by UV laser (355 nm), induction of DNA lesions by specific agents, and GFP technology to study the Oct4 response to DNA damage. We found that Oct4 accumulates in UV-damaged regions immediately after irradiation in an adenosine triphosphate-dependent manner. Intriguingly, this event was not accompanied by pronounced Nanog and c-MYC recruitment to the UV-damaged sites. The accumulation of Oct4 to UV-damaged chromatin occurred simultaneously with H3K9 deacetylation and H2AX phosphorylation (γH2AX). Moreover, we observed an ESC-specific nuclear distribution of γH2AX after interference to cellular processes, including histone acetylation, transcription, and cell metabolism. Inhibition of histone deacetylases mostly prevented pronounced Oct4 accumulation at UV-irradiated chromatin.Conclusions/SignificanceOur studies demonstrate pluripotency-specific events that accompany DNA damage responses. Here, we discuss how ESCs might respond to DNA damage caused by genotoxic injury that might lead to unwanted genomic instability.
Polycomb group (PcG) proteins, organized into Polycomb bodies, are important regulatory components of epigenetic processes involved in the heritable transcriptional repression of target genes. Here, we asked whether acetylation can influence the nuclear arrangement and function of the BMI1 protein, a core component of the Polycomb group complex, PRC1. We used time-lapse confocal microscopy, micro-irradiation by UV laser (355 nm) and GFP technology to study the dynamics and function of the BMI1 protein. We observed that BMI1 was recruited to UV-damaged chromatin simultaneously with decreased lysine acetylation, followed by the recruitment of heterochromatin protein HP1β to micro-irradiated regions. Pronounced recruitment of BMI1 was rapid, with half-time τ = 15 sec; thus, BMI1 is likely involved in the initiation step leading to the recognition of UV-damaged sites. Histone hyperacetylation, stimulated by HDAC inhibitor TSA, suppression of transcription by actinomycin D, and ATP-depletion prevented increased accumulation of BMI1 to γH2AX-positive irradiated chromatin. Moreover, BMI1 had slight ability to recognize spontaneously occurring DNA breaks caused by other pathophysiological processes. Taken together, our data indicate that the dynamics of recognition of UV-damaged chromatin, and the nuclear arrangement of BMI1 protein can be influenced by acetylation and occur as an early event prior to the recruitment of HPβ to UV-irradiated chromatin.
Background information Promyelocytic leukaemia (PML) bodies are specific nuclear structures with functional significance for acute promyelocytic leukaemia. In this study, we analysed the trajectories of PML bodies using single‐particle tracking. Results We observed that the recovery of PML protein after photobleaching was ATP dependent in both wild‐type (wt) and A‐type lamin‐deficient cells. The movement of PML bodies was faster and the nuclear area occupied by particular PML bodies was larger in A‐type lamin‐deficient fibroblasts compared with their wt counterparts. Moreover, dysfunction of the LMNA gene increased the frequency of mutual interactions between individual PML bodies and influenced the morphology of these domains at the ultrastructural level. As a consequence of A‐type lamin deficiency, PML protein accumulated in nuclear blebs and frequently appeared at the nuclear periphery. Conclusions We suggest that the physiological function of lamin A proteins is important for events that occur in the compartment of PML bodies. This observation was confirmed in other experimental models characterised by lamin changes, including apoptosis or the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells.
The DNA damage response is mediated by both DNA repair proteins and epigenetic markers. Here, we observe that N6-methyladenosine (m6A), a mark of the epitranscriptome, was common in RNAs accumulated at UV-damaged chromatin; however, inhibitors of RNA polymerases I and II did not affect the m6A RNA level at the irradiated genomic regions. After genome injury, m6A RNAs either diffused to the damaged chromatin or appeared at the lesions enzymatically. DNA damage did not change the levels of METTL3 and METTL14 methyltransferases. In a subset of irradiated cells, only the METTL16 enzyme, responsible for m6A in non-coding RNAs as well as for splicing regulation, was recruited to microirradiated sites. Importantly, the levels of the studied splicing factors were not changed by UVA light. Overall, if the appearance of m6A RNAs at DNA lesions is regulated enzymatically, this process must be mediated via the coregulatory function of METTL-like enzymes. This event is additionally accompanied by radiation-induced depletion of 2,2,7-methylguanosine (m3G/TMG) in RNA. Moreover, UV-irradiation also decreases the global cellular level of N1-methyladenosine (m1A) in RNAs. Based on these results, we prefer a model in which m6A RNAs rapidly respond to radiation-induced stress and diffuse to the damaged sites. The level of both (m1A) RNAs and m3G/TMG in RNAs is reduced as a consequence of DNA damage, recognized by the nucleotide excision repair mechanism.
BackgroundThe repair of spontaneous and induced DNA lesions is a multistep process. Depending on the type of injury, damaged DNA is recognized by many proteins specifically involved in distinct DNA repair pathways.ResultsWe analyzed the DNA-damage response after ultraviolet A (UVA) and γ irradiation of mouse embryonic fibroblasts and focused on upstream binding factor 1 (UBF1), a key protein in the regulation of ribosomal gene transcription. We found that UBF1, but not nucleolar proteins RPA194, TCOF, or fibrillarin, was recruited to UVA-irradiated chromatin concurrently with an increase in heterochromatin protein 1β (HP1β) level. Moreover, Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) confirmed interaction between UBF1 and HP1β that was dependent on a functional chromo shadow domain of HP1β. Thus, overexpression of HP1β with a deleted chromo shadow domain had a dominant-negative effect on UBF1 recruitment to UVA-damaged chromatin. Transcription factor UBF1 also interacted directly with DNA inside the nucleolus but no interaction of UBF1 and DNA was confirmed outside the nucleolus, where UBF1 recruitment to DNA lesions appeared simultaneously with cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers; this occurrence was cell-cycle-independent.ConclusionsWe propose that the simultaneous presence and interaction of UBF1 and HP1β at DNA lesions is activated by the presence of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and mediated by the chromo shadow domain of HP1β. This might have functional significance for nucleotide excision repair.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1756-8935-7-39) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
BackgroundProtein exchange kinetics correlate with the level of chromatin condensation and, in many cases, with the level of transcription. We used fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) to analyse the kinetics of 18 proteins and determine the relationships between nuclear arrangement, protein molecular weight, global transcription level, and recovery kinetics. In particular, we studied heterochromatin-specific heterochromatin protein 1β (HP1β) B lymphoma Mo-MLV insertion region 1 (BMI1), and telomeric-repeat binding factor 1 (TRF1) proteins, and nucleolus-related proteins, upstream binding factor (UBF) and RNA polymerase I large subunit (RPA194). We considered whether the trajectories and kinetics of particular proteins change in response to histone hyperacetylation by histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors or after suppression of transcription by actinomycin D.ResultsWe show that protein dynamics are influenced by many factors and events, including nuclear pattern and transcription activity. A slower recovery after photobleaching was found when proteins, such as HP1β, BMI1, TRF1, and others accumulated at specific foci. In identical cells, proteins that were evenly dispersed throughout the nucleoplasm recovered more rapidly. Distinct trajectories for HP1β, BMI1, and TRF1 were observed after hyperacetylation or suppression of transcription. The relationship between protein trajectory and transcription level was confirmed for telomeric protein TRF1, but not for HP1β or BMI1 proteins. Moreover, heterogeneity of foci movement was especially observed when we made distinctions between centrally and peripherally positioned foci.ConclusionBased on our results, we propose that protein kinetics are likely influenced by several factors, including chromatin condensation, differentiation, local protein density, protein binding efficiency, and nuclear pattern. These factors and events likely cooperate to dictate the mobility of particular proteins.
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