The objectives of this study were: 1) to compare the effects of live yeast (LY), yeast fermentation product (YFP), a mix of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Propionibacterium freudenreichii (MLP), and Lactobacillus plantarum included as additives in dairy cows’ diets on in vitro ruminal fermentation and gas production (GP); and 2) to evaluate the effects of L. plantarum as direct-fed microbials (DFM) in dairy cows’ diets on in vitro ruminal fermentation, GP, nutrient digestibility, and N metabolism. Three experiments were carried out: Exp. 1 had the objective to compare all additives regarding ruminal fermentation parameters: an Ankom GP system was used in a completely randomized design, consisting of four 48 h incubations, and eight replications per treatment. There were eight treatments: a basal diet without additive (CTRL) or with one of the following additives: LY, YFP, MLP, or L. plantarum at four levels (% of diet Dry Matter (DM)): 0.05% (L1), 0.10% (L2), 0.15% (L3), and 0.20% (L4). In Exp. 2, a batch culture was used to evaluate ruminal fermentation, and CO2 and CH4 production using the same treatments and a similar experimental design, except for having 16 replications per treatment. Based on Exp. 1 and 2 results, Exp. 3 aimed at evaluating the effects of the L. plantarum on ruminal true nutrient digestibility and N utilization in order to evaluate the use of L. plantarum as DFM. The treatments CTRL, MLP, L1, and L2 were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design using a dual-flow continuous culture system. Data were analyzed using linear and nonlinear regression; treatment means were compared through contrasts, and L treatments in Exp. 1 and 2 were tested for linear, quadratic, and cubic effects. In Exp. 1, all treatments containing additives tended to reduce OM digestibility as well as reduced total volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration and total GP. The YFP had greater OM digestibility than LY, and MLP treatment had greater total VFA concentration compared to L. plantarum treatments. In Exp. 2, additives reduced CO2 production, and there were no major differences in CH4. In Exp. 3, all additives reduced NH3-N concentration. In conclusion, pH and lactate concentration were not affected in all three experiments regardless of additive tested, suggesting that these additives may not improve ruminal fermentation by pH modulation; and L. plantarum may improve ruminal N metabolism when used as DFM in high-producing dairy cows’ diets, mainly by reducing NH3-N concentration.
Undesirable interactions between trace mineral elements and ruminal contents may occur during digestion when mineral salts are supplemented. Antimicrobial effects of copper sulfate (CuSO 4 ) may affect ruminal digestibility of nutrients when fed as a source of copper (Cu), while sodium selenite (Na 2 SeO 3 ) may be reduced in the rumen to less available forms of selenium (Se). Our objective was to evaluate if protection of CuSO 4 and Na 2 SeO 3 by lipid-microencapsulation would induce changes on ruminal microbial fermentation. We used 8 fermentors in a dual-flow continuous-culture system in a 4 × 4 duplicated Latin square with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Factors were CuSO 4 protection (unprotected and protected by lipid-microencapsulation) and Na 2 SeO 3 protection (unprotected and protected by lipid-microencapsulation). Treatments consisted of supplementation with 15 mg/kg of Cu and 0.3 mg/kg of Se from either unprotected or protected (lipid-microencapsulated) sources, as follows: (1) Control (unprotected CuSO 4 + unprotected Na 2 SeO 3 ); (2) Cu-P (protected CuSO 4 + unprotected Na 2 SeO 3 ); (3) Se-P (unprotected CuSO 4 + protected Na 2 SeO 3 ); (4) (Cu+Se)-P (protected CuSO 4 + protected Na 2 SeO 3 ). All diets had the same nutrient composition and fermentors were fed 106 g of dry matter/d. Each experimental period was 10 d (7 d of adaptation and 3 d for sample collections). Daily pooled samples of effluents were analyzed for pH, NH 3 -N, nutrient digestibility, and flows (g/d) of total N, NH 3 -N, nonammonia N (NAN), bacterial N, dietary N, and bacterial efficiency. Kinetics of volatile fatty acids was analyzed in samples collected daily at 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 h after feeding. Main effects of Cu protection, Se protection, and their interaction were tested for all response variables. Kinetics data were analyzed as repeated measures. Protection of Cu decreased acetate molar proportion, increased butyrate proportion, and tended to decrease acetate: propionate ratio in samples of kinetics, but did not modify nutrient digestibility. Protection of Se tended to decrease NH 3 -N concentration, NH 3 -N flow, and CP digestibility; and to increase flows of nonammonia N and dietary N. Our results indicate that protection of CuSO 4 may increase butyrate concentration at expenses of acetate, while protection of Na 2 SeO 3 tended to reduce ruminal degradation of N. Further research is needed to determine the effects of lipid-microencapsulation on intestinal absorption, tissue distribution of Cu and Se, and animal performance.
This study aimed to evaluate how different irrigation water depths influence the agronomical features of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum) cv. Roxo. Grass was cultivated in a pasture belonging to the Bovine Sector of the National Agrotechnical School of Caceres -MT. The experiment was a block design with five treatments and four repetitions. Treatments consisted of five water depths: 0 = 0% of available water (AW), 1 = 21% of AW, 2 = 34% of AW, 3 = 74% of AW, and 5 = 100% of AW. Evaluated features were production (dry matter ha -1 ), plant height, leaf/steam ratio, and stem diameter. Dry matter production of cuts from May and July increased linearly with increasing water depth (P < 0.05). Plant height increased linearly as water depth increased in the cuts of May and September, while the height of July cuts was 71.76 cm under an irrigation depth of 390.77 mm. In May, July, and September cuts, leaf percentage decreased linearly as water depth increased (P < 0.05). An increase of 1 mm in water depth reduced leaf percentage by 0.0936% (May), 0.0295% (July), and 0.0122% (September). Our results indicate that to improve dry matter production, May, July, and September cuts should be irrigated with water depths of 56.03 mm, 601.78 mm, and 577.65 mm, respectively. Key words: Forage growth. Plant height. Productivity. ResumoObjetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito de diferentes lâminas de irrigação em capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. cv. Roxo) sobre as características agronômicas. O capim foi cultivado em área de capineira da Escola Agrotécnica Federal de Cáceres -MT (EAFC), 16°13'42" latitude sul e 57°40'51" longitude Oeste de Greenwich. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos constaram da aplicação de cinco lâminas de irrigação, lâmina 0: 0% CC (Capacidade de campo), lâmina 1: 21% CC, lâmina 2: 34% CC, lâmina 3: 74% CC, lâmina 4: 100% CC de água disponibilizada. Foram avaliadas a produção de matéria seca (MS), altura da planta (H), porcentagem de lâmina foliar (% LF), relação lâmina foliar:colmo (F:C) e diâmetro do colmo. Nos cortes de maio e julho o aumento da água disponibilizada via irrigação promoveu incremento linear (P < 0,05) na produção de MS, onde cada 1 mm de água promoveu incremento de 60,11 kg MS ha -1 no mês de maio e 7,43 kg MS ha -1 no mês de julho. A (H) aumentou linearmente com o acréscimo de água disponibilizada da irrigação, atingindo a altura máxima de 56,34 cm com a lâmina d`água de 56,03 mm em maio e 63,89 cm com a lâmina d`água de 713,11 mm, enquanto no corte de julho a altura foi de 71,76 cm com a lâmina de irrigação de 390,77 mm. O aumento da quantidade de água disponibilizada promoveu redução linear (P < 0,05) da % LF no capim-elefante nos cortes de maio, julho e setembro, em que cada 1,0 mm de água de irrigação aplicada reduziu a (% LF) em 0,0936; 0,0295 e 0,0122%, respectivamente. Desta forma, do ponto de vista da produção MS ha -1 , sugere-se para o corte realizado no mês de maio lamina d`água de 56,03...
Resumo -O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da inclusão da torta de girassol na dieta de cordeiros em confinamento sobre o desempenho produtivo dos animais. Utilizaram-se 40 cordeiros sem raça definida, não castrados, com peso médio inicial de 20,17±2,66 kg, alimentados com 0, 7, 14, 21 e 28% de torta de girassol na dieta (base seca). O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento de blocos ao acaso. A inclusão de torta de girassol na dieta não alterou o consumo médio de matéria seca (883,58 g por dia), a conversão alimentar (4,40) e o consumo médio de água (2,59 L por dia). O aumento dos níveis de torta de girassol diminuiu linearmente o peso final, o ganho de peso total, o ganho de peso diário e a área de olho de lombo. O nível de inclusão de até 28% não afeta o consumo médio de matéria seca e de água, mas reduz o desempenho e a área de olho de lombo. Para obter o menor custo com a dieta, o nível de inclusão da torta de girassol pode atingir até 28% da matéria seca, quando o seu preço representar até 40% do preço da mistura entre milho e farelo de soja.Termos para indexação: avaliação econômica, confinamento, coprodutos, custo da dieta, ovinos. Performance of feedlot lambs fed with diets based on sunflower mealAbstract -The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of inclusion levels of sunflower meal in feedlot lamb diets on animal productive performance. Forty crossbreed lambs, not castrated, with average initial body weight of 20.17±2.66 kg were feed levels of 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28% of sunflower meal in the diet (dry basis). The experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design. The inclusion of sunflower meal in the diet did not affect average dry matter intake (883.58 g per day), feed conversion (4.40), and average water intake (2.59 L per day). The increase in the levels of sunflower meal linearly reduced final weight, total weight gain, average daily gain, and loin eye area. The inclusion level of up to 28% does not affect the average intake of dry matter and water, but reduces animal performance and loin eye area. To obtain the lowest cost with the diet, the inclusion level of sunflower meal can reach up to 28% of dry matter, when its price represents up to 40% of the price of corn and soybean meal blend.
-The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the morphogenetic traits and biomass accumulation of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Xaraés subjected to doses of N (0, 125, 250, 375 and 500 kg.ha -1 N). The treatments were arranged in a completely randomized design with four replications. Morphogenetic traits and biomass accumulation of dry matter (DM).ha -1 were evaluated. The results were subjected to statistical analysis by grouping the data in two periods, rainy season and throughout the year. Nitrogen doses influenced leaf appearance in the rainy season and throughout the year, with significant increase in leaf elongation during the rainy season, an increase of 56% compared with control. During this period, maximum dose of N (248.1 kg.ha -1 ) produced 214.49 kg.ha -1 .day -1 DM of leaf blade, which was 133% higher than the control. However
Goal was to evaluate the effect of mineral and/or energy-protein supplementation on intake, behavior, production response, pH, rumen ammonia and production cost of sheep. Twenty female lambs and five rumen-cannulated lambs were used to test supplementation effects on weight gain and nutritional characteristics, respectively. Treatments evaluated were: mineral mixture, supplement with 20 and 25% of crude protein offered at 0.5 and 1.0% of body weight. Supplementation at 1.0% of body weight reduced forage intake. Average daily gain were: -58.33, -1.07, -9.53, 19.27 and 34.73 g day -1 per animal, for mineral mixture, supplements with 20 and 25% of crude protein supplied at 0.5% of body weight and 20 and 25% crude protein provided at 1.0% of body weight, respectively. Rumen pH for all supplements was maintained above 6.20. Values of rumen ammonia nitrogen were 5.10, 9.48, 11.54, 17.51 and 22.45 mg dL -1 for supplements: mineral mixture, 20 and 25% of crude protein provided at 0.5% of body weight and 20 and 25% of crude protein supplied at 1.0% of body weight, respectively. The best economic return was obtained with the supplement 25% of crude protein provided at 1.0% of body weight. Key words: Forage intake. Pasture. Rumen ammonia and pH. Weight gain. ResumoObjetivou-se com este estudo avaliar o efeito da suplementação mineral e/ou proteica energética no consumo, comportamento, resposta produtiva, pH e amônia ruminais e custo de produção de ovinos. Utilizaram-se 20 borregas e cinco borregos canulados no rúmen para avaliar os efeitos da suplementação sobre o ganho de peso e características nutricionais, respectivamente. Avaliaram-se os suplementos mistura mineral e suplementos com 20 e 25% de proteína bruta ofertados a 0,5 e 1,0% do peso corporal. A suplementação na proporção de 1,0% do peso corporal reduziu o consumo de forragem. Os ganhos médios diários foram de -58,33; -1,07; -9,53; 19,27 e 34,73 g animal dia -1 , para os suplementos mistura mineral, 20 e 25% de proteína bruta fornecidos a 0,5% do peso corporal e 20 e 25% de proteína bruta ofertados a 1,0% do peso corporal, respectivamente. O pH para todos os suplementos esteve acima de
Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de diferentes doses de silicato de cálcio sobre a população de ninfas de percevejo castanho das raízes em Brachiaria brizantha, nas características químicas do solo, planta e produção de matéria seca. O experimento foi conduzido em blocos casualizados, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições, totalizando 20 parcelas. Os tratamentos testados foram cinco doses (0, 0,5, 1, 2, e 4 t ha-1) de silicato de cálcio aplicadas junto com a adubação NPK na implantação da B. brizantha. Foi avaliado o número de ninfas do percevejo (profundidade de 0 a 40 cm), o pH e os teores de cálcio e de silício no solo. Aos 120 dias do plantio, a gramínea foi cortada, determinando-se a composição química e a produção de massa seca. Verificou-se que a aplicação de 2,6 t ha-1 de silicato de cálcio foi a melhor dosagem estimada para a redução de ninfas do percevejo castanho das raízes. A aplicação de doses crescentes de silicato de cálcio no solo promoveu o incremento do pH, dos teores de cálcio e silício no solo e o aumento na produção de matéria seca de B. brizantha.
Quails are homeothermic animals, in countries with a tropical climate, such as Brazil, birds face great difficulties in controlling body temperature inside the sheds. Several practices are being studied in order to keep these animals within the thermal comfort zone, and thus, to minimize the effects of thermal stress, partial substitution of carbohydrates by oils and changes in density are some of them. The objective of this study was to evaluate the different breeding densities and inclusion levels of soybean oil in performance, carcass characteristics and heat loss in quail. 450 quails, seven days old, distributed in a completely randomized design in a 3 × 2 factorial scheme, two densities (215.6 cm2 bird-1 and 188.6 cm2 bird-1) and three inclusion levels of soybean oil (0, 2, 4%) were used, totaling six treatments with five replicates each. The heat loss by radiation was estimated with the aid of infrared thermography. The results showed that there was an effect of the density on feed consumption, which was lower for birds raised in the density of 188.6 cm2 bird-1 (783.78 g of feed), but without its effect on weight gain and food conversion. No effect of inclusion levels of soybean oil was observed on any performance variables. There was no statistical difference (P > 0.05) between treatments for any variables of carcass yield and parts, and heat loss by radiation analyzed. Therefore, it is concluded that soybean oil inclusion levels do not affect the performance and yield of quails, nor do they influence the loss of heat throughout the life cycle of these animals. The birds raised in the density of 188.6 cm2 bird-1 obtained the lowest average dietary intake, with no impact on weight gain and feed conversion, allowing the creation of a greater number of birds per box.
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