The simplest model that can accomodate a viable nonbaryonic dark matter candidate is the standard electroweak theory with the addition of right-handed or sterile neutrinos. This model has been studied extensively in the context of the hot dark matter scenario. We reexamine this model and find that hot, warm, and cold dark matter are all possibilities. We focus on the case where sterile neutrinos are the dark matter. Since their only direct coupling is to left-handed or active neutrinos, the most efficient production mechanism is via neutrino oscillations. If the production rate is always less than the expansion rate, then these neutrinos will never be in thermal equilibrium. However, they may still play a significant role in the dynamics of the Universe and possibly provide the missing mass necessary for closure. We consider a single generation of neutrino fields (v~, VR) with a Dirac mass, p, and a Majorana mass for the right-handed components only, M. For M > p we show that the number density of sterile neutrinos is proportional to p2/M so that the energy density today is independent of M. However M is crucial in determining the large scale structure of the Universe. In particular, M N O.l-1.0 keV leads to warm dark matter and a structure formation scenario that may have some advantages over both the standard hot and cold dark matter scenarios.
A variety of observations suggest that magnetic fields are present in all galaxies and galaxy clusters. These fields are characterized by a modest strength (10 −7 − 10 −5 G) and huge spatial scale (< ∼ 1 Mpc). It is generally assumed that magnetic fields in spiral galaxies arise from the combined action of differential rotation and helical turbulence, a process known as the αω-dynamo. However fundamental questions concerning the nature of the dynamo as well as the origin of the seed fields necessary to prime it remain unclear. Moreover, the standard αω-dynamo does not explain the existence of magnetic fields in elliptical galaxies and clusters. The author summarizes what is known observationally about magnetic fields in galaxies, clusters, superclusters, and beyond. He then reviews the standard dynamo paradigm, the challenges that have been leveled against it, and several alternative scenarios. He concludes with a discussion of astrophysical and early Universe candidates for seed fields.
Dwarf satellite galaxies are thought to be the remnants of the population of primordial structures that coalesced to form giant galaxies like the Milky Way. It has previously been suspected that dwarf galaxies may not be isotropically distributed around our Galaxy, because several are correlated with streams of H I emission, and may form coplanar groups. These suspicions are supported by recent analyses. It has been claimed that the apparently planar distribution of satellites is not predicted within standard cosmology, and cannot simply represent a memory of past coherent accretion. However, other studies dispute this conclusion. Here we report the existence of a planar subgroup of satellites in the Andromeda galaxy (M 31), comprising about half of the population. The structure is at least 400 kiloparsecs in diameter, but also extremely thin, with a perpendicular scatter of less than 14.1 kiloparsecs. Radial velocity measurements reveal that the satellites in this structure have the same sense of rotation about their host. This shows conclusively that substantial numbers of dwarf satellite galaxies share the same dynamical orbital properties and direction of angular momentum. Intriguingly, the plane we identify is approximately aligned with the pole of the Milky Way's disk and with the vector between the Milky Way and Andromeda.
In hierarchical cosmological models, galaxies grow in mass through the continual accretion of smaller ones. The tidal disruption of these systems is expected to result in loosely bound stars surrounding the galaxy, at distances that reach 10-100 times the radius of the central disk. The number, luminosity and morphology of the relics of this process provide significant clues to galaxy formation history, but obtaining a comprehensive survey of these components is difficult because of their intrinsic faintness and vast extent. Here we report a panoramic survey of the Andromeda galaxy (M31). We detect stars and coherent structures that are almost certainly remnants of dwarf galaxies destroyed by the tidal field of M31. An improved census of their surviving counterparts implies that three-quarters of M31's satellites brighter than M(v) = -6 await discovery. The brightest companion, Triangulum (M33), is surrounded by a stellar structure that provides persuasive evidence for a recent encounter with M31. This panorama of galaxy structure directly confirms the basic tenets of the hierarchical galaxy formation model and reveals the shared history of M31 and M33 in the unceasing build-up of galaxies.
We present an analysis of the large-scale structure of the halo of the Andromeda galaxy, based on the Pan-Andromeda Archeological Survey (PAndAS), currently the most complete map of resolved stellar populations in any galactic halo. Despite the presence of copious substructures, the global halo populations follow closely powerlaw profiles that become steeper with increasing metallicity. We divide the sample into stream-like populations and a smooth halo component (defined as the population that cannot be resolved into spatially distinct substructures with PAndAS). Fitting a three-dimensional halo model reveals that the most metal-poor populations ([Fe/H] < −1.7) are distributed approximately spherically (slightly prolate with ellipticity c/a = 1.09 ± 0.03), with only a relatively small fraction residing in discernible stream-like structures (f stream = 42%). The sphericity of the ancient smooth component strongly hints that the dark matter halo is also approximately spherical. More metal-rich populations contain higher fractions of stars in streams, with f stream becoming as high as 86% for [Fe/H] > −0.6. The space density of the smooth metal-poor component has a global power-law slope of γ = −3.08 ± 0.07, and a nonparametric fit shows that the slope remains nearly constant from 30 kpc to ∼300 kpc. The total stellar mass in the halo at distances beyond 2• is ∼1.1 × 10 10 M , while that of the smooth component is ∼3 × 10 9 M . Extrapolating into the inner galaxy, the total stellar mass of the smooth halo is plausibly ∼8 × 10 9 M . We detect a substantial metallicity gradient, which declines from [Fe/H] = −0.7 at R = 30 kpc to [Fe/H] = −1.5 at R = 150 kpc for the full sample, with the smooth halo being ∼0.2 dex more metal poor than the full sample at each radius. While qualitatively in line with expectations from cosmological simulations, these observations are of great importance as they provide a prototype template that such simulations must now be able to reproduce in quantitative detail.
We present evidence for a Galactic North-South asymmetry in the number density and bulk velocity of solar neighborhood stars. The number density profile, which is derived from main-sequence stars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, shows a (North−South)/(North+South) deficit at |z| ≃ 400 pc and an excess at |z| ∼ 800 pc. The bulk velocity profile, which is derived from the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration, shows a gradual trend across the Galactic midplane as well as smaller-scale features. We speculate that the North-South asymmetry, which has the appearance of a wavelike perturbation, is intrinsic to the disk. We explore the physics of this phenomenon through an analysis of the linearized Boltzmann and Poisson equations and through onedimensional simulations. The perturbation may be excited by the passage of a satellite galaxy or dark matter subhalo through the Galactic disk, in which case we are witnessing a recent disk-heating event.Subject headings: Galaxy: kinematics and dynamics -solar neighborhood Disk galaxies are dynamic systems that can develop bars, spiral structure, and warps. They tidally disrupt satellite galaxies and dark matter subhalos, a process that leaves behind streams of stars and dark matter. Likewise, satellites continually perturb the disk of their host galaxy.Despite the existence of these time-dependent phenomena, the assumption that galaxies are in equilibrium (i.e., stationary in the potential) has been used extensively to interpret
We examine various solutions of the strong-CP problem to determine their sensitivity to possible violations of global symmetries by Planck scale physics.While some solutions remain viable even in the face of such effects, violations of the Peccei-Quinn (PQ) symmetry by non-renormalizable operators of dimension less than 10 will generally shift the value of θ to values inconsistent with the experimental bound θ < ∼ 10 −9 . We show that it is possible to construct axion models where gauge symmetries protect PQ symmetry to the requisite level.
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