In this article, we discuss the challenges faced in recruiting “hard-to-reach” groups for interview studies, specifically those who do not access preventative healthcare services. We do this by reflecting on the varying success of different recruitment methods we have used in two recent studies; one investigating ethnic disparities in human papillomavirus vaccination uptake and another exploring difference in cervical screening non-participation. Engaging new community groups to help with recruitment proved particularly difficult, as did recruiting online. Our most successful recruitment methods included recruiting through community groups with whom we had previously established relationships, recruiting through schools and re-contacting participants who previously completed a related survey. We conclude that successful recruitment is dependent on study awareness and engagement. We urge others to be transparent in reporting recruitment methods in order to benefit the qualitative research community and suggest that details are published as supplementary material alongside qualitative articles in future.
Emotional response to testing positive for human papillomavirus at cervical cancer screening: a mixed method systematic review with meta-analysis, Health Psychology Review,
BackgroundUptake of some childhood immunisations in the UK is lower among those from some Black and Asian Minority Ethnic (BAME) backgrounds. This systematic review of qualitative research sought to understand the factors that are associated with ethnicity that influence the immunisation decisions of parents from BAME backgrounds living in the UK.MethodsDatabases were searched on 2 December 2014 for studies published at any time using the terms ‘UK’ and ‘vaccination’ and ‘qualitative methods’ (and variations of these). Included articles comprised participants who were parents from BAME backgrounds. Thematic synthesis methods were used to develop descriptive and higher order themes. Themes specific to ethnicity and associated factors are reported.ResultsEight papers were included in the review. Most participants were from Black (n=62) or Asian (n=38) backgrounds. Two ethnicity-related factors affected immunisation decisions. First, factors that are related to ethnicity itself (namely religion, upbringing and migration, and language) affected parents' perceived importance of immunisations, whether immunisations were permitted or culturally acceptable and their understanding of immunisation/the immunisation schedule. Second, perceived biological differences affected decision-making and demand for information.ConclusionsFactors related to ethnicity must be considered when seeking to understand immunisation decisions among parents from BAME backgrounds. Where appropriate and feasible, vaccination information should be targeted to address beliefs about ethnic differences held by some individuals from some BAME backgrounds.
BackgroundHigh uptake of vaccinations is crucial for disease prevention. Although overall uptake of childhood immunisations is high in the United Kingdom (UK), pockets of lower uptake remain. Novel systematic methods have not been employed when reviewing the qualitative literature examining parents’ vaccination decisions.AimsWe aimed to conduct a qualitative systematic review of studies in the UK to understand factors influencing parental decisions to vaccinate a child.MethodsOn 12/2/14 we searched PsycINFO, MEDLINE, CINAHL plus, Embase, Social Policy and Practice and Web of Science for studies using qualitative methods and reporting reasons why parents in the UK had or had not immunised their child. Participant quotes and authors’ interpretations of qualitative data were extracted from the results of articles. Thematic synthesis was used to develop higher-order themes (conducted in 2015).Results34 papers were included. Two types of decision-making had been adopted: non-deliberative and deliberative. With non-deliberative decisions parents felt they had no choice, were happy to comply and/or relied on social norms. Deliberative decisions involved weighing up the risks and benefits, considering others’ advice/experiences and social judgement. Emotions affected deliberative decision-making. Trust in information and vaccine stakeholders was integral to all decision-making. Practical issues affected those who intended to vaccinate.ConclusionsParents adopted two different approaches to decision-making about childhood vaccinations. By understanding more about the mechanisms underpinning parents’ vaccination behaviour, in collaboration with vaccine stakeholders, we can better design interventions to enhance informed uptake.
Background:Uptake of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is suboptimal among some groups. We aimed to determine the feasibility of undertaking a cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT) of incentives to improve HPV vaccination uptake by increasing consent form return.Methods:An equal-allocation, two-arm cluster RCT design was used. We invited 60 London schools to participate. Those agreeing were randomised to either a standard invitation or incentive intervention arm, in which Year 8 girls had the chance to win a £50 shopping voucher if they returned a vaccination consent form, regardless of whether consent was provided. We collected data on school and parent participation rates and questionnaire response rates. Analyses were descriptive.Results:Six schools completed the trial and only 3% of parents opted out. The response rate was 70% for the girls’ questionnaire and 17% for the parents’. In the intervention arm, 87% of girls returned a consent form compared with 67% in the standard invitation arm. The proportion of girls whose parents gave consent for vaccination was higher in the intervention arm (76%) than the standard invitation arm (61%).Conclusions:An RCT of an incentive intervention is feasible. The intervention may improve vaccination uptake but a fully powered RCT is needed.
Pregnancy is an opportune time for women to make healthy changes to their lifestyle, however, many women struggle to do so. Multiple reasons have been posited as to why this may be. This review aimed to synthesise this literature by identifying factors that influence women's health behaviour during pregnancy, specifically in relation to dietary behaviour, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol use. Bibliographic databases (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL-P, MIDIRS) were systematically searched to retrieve studies reporting qualitative data regarding women's experiences or perceptions of pregnancy-related behaviour change relating to the four key behaviours. Based on the eligibility criteria, 30,852 records were identified and 92 studies were included. Study quality was assessed using the CASP tool and data were thematically synthesised. Three overarching themes were generated from the data. These were (1) A time to think about 'me', (2) Adopting the 'good mother' role, and (3) Beyond mother and baby. These findings provide an improved understanding of the various internal and external factors influencing women's health behaviour during the antenatal period. This knowledge provides the foundations from which future pregnancy-specific theories of behaviour change can be developed and highlights the importance of taking a holistic approach to maternal behaviour change in clinical practice.
ObjectivesIntroducing primary human papillomavirus (HPV) testing to cervical screening programmes means changes to the results women receive. We explored additional information needs among women undergoing HPV primary screening.DesignWomen were sent a postal questionnaire shortly after receiving their results and 6 and 12 months later. Each questionnaire asked if women had any unanswered questions about cervical screening or HPV testing. Free-text responses constituted the data. Themes were identified using content analysis.SettingNational Health Service (NHS) Cervical Screening Programme, England.Participants381 women who recorded one or more free-text responses.ResultsThe most common theme represented women’s emotional responses and attempts to understand their results. This theme was raised by 45% of women overall, but was as high as 59% in the HPV cleared group. General questions about the cause and epidemiology of HPV were raised by 38% of women and were more common among those testing HPV positive with normal cytology (52%). Questions about the purpose and procedure for HPV testing were most common among HPV-negative women (40%, compared with 16%–24% of the other results groups). Questions about future implications of test results were raised by 19% of women, and this theme was most common among those with persistent HPV.ConclusionsDespite provision of information alongside screening invitations, women can still have unanswered questions following receipt of their results. Details about the epidemiology of HPV and why cervical screening procedures are changing should be included with screening invitations. Some results groups may benefit from additional tailored information with their results letter.
ObjectivesTo explore predictors of university students’ intention to receive a recommended vaccine and the main sources of vaccine-related information accessed by university students.SettingParticipants were recruited from University College London (UK) in summer 2015.Participants177 university students participated. The majority of participants were female (58%), White (68%) and had no religion (58%). Participants were aged 18 to 42 (mean age=23.6).Primary and secondary outcome measuresPrimary outcome measures included vaccine attitude, perceived subjective norm, perceived behavioural control, perceived self-efficacy, past receipt of recommended childhood vaccines, perceived adverse reaction to past vaccination and needle fear. As a secondary outcome sources of vaccine-related information were assessed.ResultsStudents classified as high intenders were more likely to have received all recommended childhood vaccines (OR 3.57; 95% CI 1.21 to 10.59; p=0.022), be less afraid of needles (OR 2.44; 95% CI 1.12 to 5.36; p=0.026) and to have lived in the UK until at least the age of 4 compared with those not living in the UK until at least the age of 4 (OR 0.39; 95% CI 0.18 to 0.83; p=0.015) and those who lived both in the UK and elsewhere (OR 0.42; 95% CI 0.04 to 4.06; p=0.424). The multivariable model explained 25.5% of variance in intention to receive a recommended vaccine. The internet was the most commonly reported source of vaccination information.ConclusionsFindings provide an indication of the factors that may need to be addressed by interventions aiming to increase uptake of recommended vaccines in a university population. Future research is recommended using a prospective cohort design.
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