Transglutaminase 2 is required for the development of IgA nephropathy.
Exaggerated release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) along with decreased NET clearance and inability to remove apoptotic cells (efferocytosis) may contribute to sustained inflammation in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Recent studies in experimental models of ARDS have revealed the crosstalk between AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), which may contribute to effectiveness of efferocytosis, thereby reducing inflammation and ARDS severity.We investigated neutrophil and NET clearance by macrophages from control and ARDS patients and examined how bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from control and ARDS patients could affect NET formation and efferocytosis. Metformin (an AMPK activator) and neutralising antibody against HMGB1 were applied to improve efferocytosis and NET clearance.Neutrophils from ARDS patients showed significantly reduced apoptosis. Conversely, NET formation was significantly enhanced in ARDS patients. Exposure of neutrophils to ARDS BAL fluid promoted NET production, while control BAL fluid had no effect. Macrophage engulfment of NETs and apoptotic neutrophils was diminished in ARDS patients. Notably, activation of AMPK in macrophages or neutralisation of HMGB1 in BAL fluid improved efferocytosis and NET clearance.In conclusion, restoration of AMPK activity with metformin or specific neutralisation of HMGB1 in BAL fluid represent promising therapeutic strategies to decrease sustained lung inflammation during ARDS.
We have previously shown that human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC) express indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), as well as several other enzymes of the kynurenine pathway at the mRNA level upon maturation. The tolerogenic mechanisms of this pathway remain unclear. Here we show that LPS-treated DC metabolize tryptophan as far as quinolinate. We found that IDO contributes to LPS and TNF-a + poly(I:C)-induced DC maturation since IDO inhibition using two different inhibitors impairs DC maturation. IDO knock-down using short-hairpin RNA also led to diminished LPSinduced maturation. In line with these results, the tryptophan-derived catabolites 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid and 3-hydroxykynurenine increased maturation of LPStreated DC. Concerning the molecular mechanisms of this effect, IDO acts as an intermediate pathway in LPS-induced production of reactive oxygen species and NF-jB activation, two processes that lead to DC maturation. Finally, we show that mature DC expand CD4 + CD25 high regulatory T cells in an IDO-dependent manner. In conclusion, we show that IDO constitutes an intermediate pathway in DC maturation leading to expansion of CD4 + CD25 high regulatory T cells.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease that results in demyelination in the central nervous system, and a defect in the regulatory function of CD4 + CD25 high T cells has been implicated in the pathogenesis of the disease. Here, we reanalyzed the function of this T cell subset in patients with MS, but we depleted cells expressing IL-7 receptor α-chain (CD127), a marker recently described as present on activated T cells but not Tregs. Similar to other studies, we observed a marked defect in the suppressive function of unseparated CD4 + CD25 high T cells isolated from MS patients. However, when CD127 high cells were removed from the CD4 + CD25 high population, patient and control cells inhibited T cell proliferation and cytokine production equally. Likewise, when the CD25 gate used to sort the cells was stringent enough to eliminate CD127 high cells,
Summary Chronic rejection (CR) is a major cause of long‐term graft loss that would be avoided by the induction of tolerance. We previously showed that renal transplant patients with CR have lower numbers of peripheral CD4+CD25high T cells than operationally tolerant patients, patients with stable graft function and healthy volunteers (HV). We explored here the profile of CD4+CD25high blood T cells in these patients focusing on their expression of the regulatory T cells (Treg) gene Forkhead Box P3 (FOXP3) and their suppressive function. We show that CR is associated with a decreased number of CD4+CD25highFOXP3+T cells with normal regulatory profile, whereas graft acceptance is associated with CD4+CD25highFOXP3+T cell numbers similar to HVs. These data suggest that Treg numbers, rather than their intrinsic suppressive capacity, may contribute to determining the long‐term fate of renal transplants.
Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is the most abundantly produced antibody isotype in mammals. The primary function of IgA is to maintain homeostasis at mucosal surfaces and play a role in immune protection. IgA functions mainly through interaction with multiple receptors including IgA Fc receptor I (FcαRI), transferrin receptor 1 (CD71), asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR), Fcα/μR, FcRL4, and DC-SIGN/SIGNR1. In this review we discuss recent data demonstrating anti-inflammatory functions of IgA through two receptors, the FcαRI and DC-SIGN/SIGNR1 interactions in the regulation of immunity. Serum monomeric IgA is able to mediate an inhibitory signal following the interaction with FcαRI. It results in partial phosphorylation of its FcRγ-ITAM and the recruitment of the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1, which induces cell inhibition following the formation of intracellular clusters named inhibisomes. In contrast, cross-linking of FcαRI by multimeric ligands induces a full phosphorylation of the FcRγ-ITAM leading to the recruitment of the tyrosine kinase Syk and cell activation. In addition, secretory IgA can mediate a potent anti-inflammatory function following the sugar-dependent interaction with SIGNR1 on dendritic cells which induces an immune tolerance via regulatory T cell expansion. Overall, the anti-inflammatory effect of serum and secretory IgA plays a crucial role in the physiology and in the prevention of tissue damage in multiple autoimmune and inflammatory diseases.
IgA nephropathy (IgAN), the most common primary glomerulonephritis worldwide, frequently leads to end-stage renal disease and kidney transplantation. However, disease recurrence often occurs after transplantation. Here we evaluated the predictive value of three markers for IgAN recurrence: the presence of galactose-deficient IgA1, IgG anti-IgA autoantibodies, and IgA-soluble (s) CD89 complexes. This was analyzed in 38 kidney transplant recipients with IgAN recurrence and compared with 22 patients transplanted for IgAN but without recurrence and with 17 healthy controls. Pre-transplantation galactose-deficient IgA1 serum levels were significantly higher in the recurrence compared with the no recurrence or control groups. IgA-IgG complexes were significantly elevated in the recurrence group. Both the recurrence and no recurrence groups had increased values of IgA-sCD89 complexes compared with healthy controls, but values were significantly lower in patients with recurrence compared with no recurrence. Areas under the receiver operating curve of the markers in pre-transplantation sera were 0.86 for galactose-deficient-IgA, 0.82 for IgA-IgG, and 0.78 for sCD89-IgA; all significant. Disease recurrence was associated with decreased serum galactose-deficient IgA1 and appearance of mesangial-galactose-deficient IgA1 deposits, whereas increased serum IgA-sCD89 complexes were associated with mesangial sCD89 deposits. Thus, galactose-deficient-IgA1, IgG autoantibodies, and IgA-sCD89 complexes are valuable biomarkers to predict disease recurrence, highlighting major pathogenic mechanisms in IgAN.
Henoch–Schönlein purpura is a systemic vasculitis characterized by IgA deposits, which target the skin, joints, and kidneys, among other organs. In children, prognosis is often good but little is known about biomarkers of pediatric nephritis. We hypothesized that biological markers, including cytokines, immunoglobulins, IgA-immune complexes, IgA glycosylation and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), may discriminate IgA vasculitis (IgAV) pediatric patients with renal involvement from those without renal involvement. Fifty children at the time of IgAV rash between 2010 and 2015 were prospectively enrolled and compared to 21 controls. All patients were assessed for clinical and biological parameters at the time of diagnosis, including the levels of cytokines, immunoglobulins, immune complexes, IgA glycosylation and NGAL in serum and urine. Among IgAV patients, 33 patients exhibited nephritis (IgAV-N) and 17 children were without nephritis (IgAV-woN). The serum level of galactose-deficient (Gd)-IgA1 (p<0.01) and the urinary concentrations of IgA, IgG, IgM, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IgA-IgG complexes and IgA-sCD89 complexes (p<0.001 for all) were higher in the IgAV-N patients than in the IgAV-woN patients. Among those markers, urinary IgA and IgM had the highest AUC (0.86 and 0.87 respectively, p<0.0001). This prospective cohort study furthers our understanding of the pathophysiology of IgAV. We identified biomarkers that are able to distinguish patients initially with or without nephritis. To conclude, serum Gd-IgA1 and urinary IgA, IgG, IgM, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and IgA-IgG and IgA-sCD89 complexes could identify IgAV pediatric patients with renal involvement at the time of diagnosis.
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