Juvenile xanthogranuloma is a rare benign non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Clinical manifestation usually occurs up to the age of 2 years, with yellowish papules and variable clinical progression. Approximately 0.75% of patients had systemic involvement and 0.25%, ocular alterations. The purpose of this report is to describe a case of a preschool 2-year-old female patient, with nodules in the upper right eyelid, 0.5-cm wide, with well-defined edges, an uncertain date of onset, a stable growth for 6 months, with no inflammatory signs, pruritus, pain, bleeding, or other similar lesions in the body. No further changes were observed in the physical examination. Histopathological examination of the specimen showed a skin lesion with histiocytoid, spindle-shaped cells and xanthomized cells, inflammatory infiltrate and numerous Touton giant cells. The result was compatible with diagnosis of juvenile xanthogranuloma. Therefore, the importance of including juvenile xanthogranuloma in the differential diagnosis of eyelid lesions is emphasized, especially in children.
To evaluate the Candida krusei and Candida albicans biofilm formation abilities on 5 different types of contact lenses and compare their metabolic activities and biomass. Methods: After biofilm formation by both the test species, their metabolic activity was assessed by the 2,3-bis (2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide reduction assay with menadione, while the biomass was determined by staining with 0.4% crystal violet dye for further statistical analysis. Results: Both the Candida species could form biofilms on different types of contact lenses, with greater metabolic activities and lower biomass formation in rigid gas permeable lenses. Conclusion: Biofilm formation with greater metabolic activity and greater biomass were expected on soft contact lenses considering their surface hydrophobicity. However, the results demonstrated a greater metabolic activity on rigid contact lenses. This result has a great significance with regards to the increasing risk of microbial keratitis, although further studies are warranted to better elucidate the formation of biofilms on different types of contact lens materials in the future.
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