BackgroundLow birth weight (LBW) is a leading risk factor for infant morbidity and mortality in the United States. There are large disparities in the prevalence of LBW by race and ethnicity, especially between African American and White women. Despite extensive research, the practice of clinical and public health, and policies devoted to reducing the number of LBW infants, the prevalence of LBW has remained unacceptably and consistently high. There have been few detailed studies identifying the factors associated with LBW in California, which is home to a highly diverse population. The aim of this study is to investigate recent trends in the prevalence of LBW infants (measured as a percentage) and to identify risk factors and disparities associated with LBW in California.MethodsA retrospective cohort study included data on 5,267,519 births recorded in the California Birth Statistical Master Files for the period 2005–2014. These data included maternal characteristics, health behaviors, information on health insurance, prenatal care use, and parity. Logistic regression models identified significant risk factors associated with LBW. Using gestational age based on obstetric estimates (OA), small for gestational age (SGA), appropriate for gestational age (AGA) and large for gestational age (LGA) infants were identified for the periods 2007–2014.ResultsThe number of LBW infants declined, from 37,603 in 2005 to 33,447 in 2014. However, the prevalence of LBW did not change significantly (6.9% in 2005 to 6.7% in 2014). The mean maternal age at first delivery increased from 25.7 years in 2005 to 27.2 years in 2014. The adjusted odds ratio showed that women aged 40 to 54 years were twice as likely to have an LBW infant as women in the 20 to 24 age group. African American women had a persistent 2.4-fold greater prevalence of having an LBW infant compared with white women. Maternal age was a significant risk factor for LBW regardless of maternal race and ethnicity or education level. During the period 2017–2014, 5.4% of the singleton births at 23–41 weeks based on OE of gestational age were SGA infants (preterm SGA + term SGA). While all the preterm SGA infants were LBW, both preterm AGA and term SGA infants had a higher prevalence of LBW.ConclusionsIn California, during the 10 years from 2005 to 2014, there was no significant decline in the prevalence of LBW. However, maternal age was a significant risk factor for LBW regardless of maternal race and ethnicity or education level. Therefore, there may be opportunities to reduce the prevalence of LBW by reducing disparities and improving birth outcomes for women of advanced maternal age.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (10.1186/s40748-018-0084-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
BackgroundPreterm birth (PTB) is associated with increased infant mortality, and neurodevelopmental abnormalities among survivors. The aim of this study is to investigate temporal trends, patterns, and predictors of PTB in California from 2007 to 2016, based on the obstetric estimate of gestational age (OA).MethodsA retrospective cohort study evaluated 435,280 PTBs from the 5,137,376 resident live births (8.5%) documented in the California Birth Statistical Master Files (BSMF) from 2007 to 2016. The outcome variable was PTB; the explanatory variables were birth year, maternal characteristics and health behaviors. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were used to identify subgroups with significant risk factors associated with PTB. Small for gestational age (SGA), appropriate for gestational age (AGA) and large for gestational age (LGA) infants were identified employing gestational age based on obstetric estimates and further classified by term and preterm births, resulting in six categories of intrauterine growth.ResultsThe prevalence of PTB in California decreased from 9.0% in 2007 to 8.2% in 2014, but increased during the last 2 years, 8.4% in 2015 and 8.5% in 2016. Maternal age, education level, race and ethnicity, smoking during pregnancy, and parity were significant risk factors associated with PTB. The adjusted odds ratio (AOR) showed that women in the oldest age group (40–54 years) were almost twice as likely to experience PTB as women in the 20- to 24-year reference age group. The prevalence of PTB was 64% higher in African American women than in Caucasian women. Hispanic women showed less disparity in the prevalence of PTB based on education and socioeconomic level. The analysis of interactions between maternal characteristics and perinatal health behaviors showed that Asian women have the highest prevalence of PTB in the youngest age group (< 20 years; AOR, 1.40; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.28–1.54). Pacific Islander, American Indian, and African American women ≥40 years of age had a greater than two-fold increase in the prevalence of PTB compared with women in the 20–24 year age group. Compared to women in the Northern and Sierra regions, women in the San Joaquin Valley were 18%, and women in the Inland Empire and San Diego regions 13% more likely to have a PTB. Women who smoked during both the first and second trimesters were 57% more likely to have a PTB than women who did not smoke. Compared to women of normal prepregnancy weight, underweight women and women in obese class III were 23 and 33% more likely to experience PTB respectively.ConclusionsImplementation of public health initiatives focusing on reducing the prevalence of PTB should focus on women of advanced maternal age and address race, ethnic, and geographic disparities. The significance of modifiable maternal perinatal health behaviors that contribute to PTB, e.g. smoking during pregnancy and prepregnancy obesity, need to be emphasized during prenatal care.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this ar...
ISWT and CPET can be useful preoperative tools to predict overall survival for patients undergoing esophago-gastric resection. Furthermore, patients that improve their functional status during chemotherapy seem to do better than those where it remains static or declines.
Background Prehabilitation is thought to reduce post-operative respiratory complications by optimising fitness before surgery. This prospective, single-centre study aimed to establish the effect of pre-operative exercise on cardiorespiratory fitness in oesophageal cancer patients and characterise the effect of adherence and weekly physical activity on response to prehabilitation. Methods Patients received a personalised, home-based pre-operative exercise programme and self-reported their adherence each week. Cardiorespiratory fitness (pVO 2 max and O 2 pulse) was assessed at diagnosis, following completion of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and immediately before surgery. Study outcomes included changes in fitness and post-operative pneumonia. Results Sixty-seven patients with oesophageal cancer underwent prehabilitation followed by surgery between January 2016 and December 2018. Fitness was preserved during NAC and then increased prior to surgery (pV0 2 max Δ = +2.6 ml min −1 , 95% CI 1.2-4.0 p = 0.001; O 2 pulse Δ = +1.4 ml beat −1 95% CI 0.5-2.3 p = 0.001). Patients with higher baseline fitness completed more physical activity. Regression analyses found adherence was associated with improvement in fitness immediately before surgery (p = 0.048), and the amount of physical activity completed was associated with the risk of post-operative pneumonia (p = 0.035). Conclusion Pre-operative exercise can maintain cardiorespiratory fitness during NAC and facilitate an increase in fitness before surgery. Greater exercise volumes were associated with a lower risk of post-operative pneumonia, highlighting the importance progressing exercise programmes throughout prehabilitation. Patients with high baseline fitness completed more physical activity and may require less supervision to reach their exercise goals. Further research is needed to explore stratified approaches to prehabilitation.
The objective of this systematic review is to identify key components of enhanced recovery protocols (ERP) that lead to improved length of hospital stay (LOS) following esophagectomy. Relevant electronic databases were searched for studies comparing clinical outcome from esophagectomy followed by a conventional pathway versus ERP. Relevant outcome measures were compared and metaregression was performed to identify the key ERP components associated with reduced in LOS. Thirteen publications were included, ERP was associated with no changes in in-hospital mortality, total complications, anastomotic leak, or pulmonary complications compared with a conventional pathway, however LOS was reduced in the ERP group. Metaregression identified that immediate extubation was associated with reduced LOS (OR = -0.51, 95%CI -0.77 to -0.25; P < 0.01). Several postoperative factors were associated with a significant reduction in length of hospital stay, and in order of most important were (i) gastrograffin swallow ≤5 days (OR = -4.27, 95%CI -4.50 to -4.03); (ii) mobilization on postoperative day ≤1 (OR = -2.49, 95%CI -2.63 to -2.34); (iii) removal of urinary catheter ≤2 days (OR = -0.99, 95%CI -1.15 to -0.84); (iv) oral intake with at least sips of fluid ≤1 day (OR = -0.96, 95%CI -1.24 to -0.68); (v) enteral diet with feeding jejunostomy or gastrostomy ≤ 1 day (OR = -0.57, 95%CI -0.80 to -0.35) and (vi) epidural removal ≤ 4 days (OR = -0.17, 95%CI -0.27 to -0.07). Several core ERP components and principles appear to be associated with LOS reduction. These elements should form a part of the core ERP for the specialty, while surgical teams incorporate other elements through an iterative process.
Background Patients undergoing oesophageal cancer surgery are often frail with a high risk of post-operative complications. Prehabilitation has been shown to reduce post-operative complications in specific patient populations but evidence in oesophageal cancer patients is inconclusive. Methods Between January 2016 and April 2019, all patients with resectable oesophageal cancer who underwent curative treatment at a specialist tertiary centre participated in a personalised, home-based, multimodal prehabilitation programme. Post-operative complications and hospital stay in this group were compared to a control sample. Propensity score matching was used to control for differences in baseline characteristics. Results Seventy-two patients who completed prehabilitation and 39 control patients were studied; following propensity score matching, there were 38 subjects in each group. In comparison to matched controls, patients in the prehabilitation group had a lower incidence of post-operative pneumonia (prehabilitation = 26%; control = 66%; p = 0.001) and a shorter length of stay (prehabilitation = median 10 days, IQR 8–17 days; control = median 13 days, IQR 11–20 days; p = 0.018). On multivariate regression analysis, participation in prehabilitation was associated with a 77% lower incidence of post-operative pneumonia (OR 0.23, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.55 p = 0.001). There was no significant difference in the incidence of overall complications or severe complications. Conclusion Prehabilitation was associated with a lower incidence of post-operative pneumonia and shorter hospital length of stay following oesophagectomy. This model of home based, personalised, and supervised prehabilitation is effective and relevant to centralised cancer services.
A bilobed testicle is an extremely rare congenital malformation, with only five cases published to date. We present the case of a 12-year-old boy with a bilobed testicle. With so few cases available, much of what is known about the management of this condition is based on cases of polyorchidism and the complications associated with this, including malignancy and torsion. Whilst surgery may play a role in some patients, uncomplicated cases can be managed conservatively. There is no long-term data on the outcome of conservative management but we propose this patient can be discharged if no further changes are identified after 18 months.
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