The prospective WEARIT-II-EUROPE registry aimed to assess the value of the wearable cardioverter-defibrillator (WCD) prior to potential ICD implantation in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction considered at risk of sudden arrhythmic death.
Methods and results
781 patients (77% men; mean age 59.3 ± 13.4 years) with heart failure and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were consecutively enrolled. All patients received a WCD. Follow-up time for all patients was 12 months. Mean baseline LVEF was 26.9%. Mean WCD wearing time was 75 ± 47.7 days, mean daily WCD use 20.3 ± 4.6 h. WCD shocks terminated 13 VT/VF events in ten patients (1.3%). Two patients died during WCD prescription of non-arrhythmic cause. Mean LVEF increased from 26.9 to 36.3% at the end of WCD prescription (
< 0.01). After WCD use, ICDs were implanted in only 289 patients (37%). Forty patients (5.1%) died during follow-up. Five patients (1.7%) died with ICDs implanted, 33 patients (7%) had no ICD (no information on ICD in two patients). The majority of patients (75%) with the follow-up of 12 months after WCD prescription died from heart failure (15 patients) and non-cardiac death (15 patients). Only three patients (7%) died suddenly. In seven patients, the cause of death remained unknown.
Mortality after WCD prescription was mainly driven by heart failure and non-cardiovascular death. In patients with HFrEF and a potential risk of sudden arrhythmic death, WCD protected observation of LVEF progression and appraisal of competing risks of potential non-arrhythmic death may enable improved selection for beneficial ICD implantation.
IntroductionCardiac surgeons stress may impair their quality of life and professional
practice.ObjectiveTo assess perceived chronic stress and coping strategies among cardiac surgeons.
MethodsTwenty-two cardiac surgeons answered two self-assessment questionnaires, the Trier
Inventory for Chronic Stress and the German SGV for coping strategies.ResultsParticipants mean age was 40±14.1 years and 13 were male; eight were senior
physicians and 14 were residents. Mean values for the Trier Inventory for Chronic
Stress were within the normal range. Unexperienced physicians had significantly
higher levels of dissatisfaction at work, lack of social recognition, and
isolation (P<0.05). Coping strategies such as play down,
distraction from situation, and substitutional satisfaction were also
significantly more frequent among unexperienced surgeons. "Negative" stress-coping
strategies occur more often in experienced than in younger colleagues
(P=0.029). Female surgeons felt more exposed to overwork
(P=0.04) and social stress (P=0.03).ConclusionCardiac surgeons show a tendency to high perception of chronic stress phenomena
and vulnerability for negative coping strategies.
Objectives Despite the superior patency of internal thoracic artery (ITA) grafting compared with saphenous veins, frequency of bilateral ITA (BITA) grafting in Europe is still approximately 10%. The aim of the present study was to compare the early outcome of patients receiving either BITA or single ITA (SITA) grafting. Methods A total of 11,496 patients with isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), operated between January 1996 and December 2012, were analyzed retrospectively; 0.6476 patients (mean age 65.2 years, 81.3% males) received BITA and 5,020 patients (mean age 66.6 years, 76.7% males) SITA grafting. Mean body mass index (BMI) was 27.2 versus 27.4, p ¼ 0.017. Incidence of diabetes was 28.9 versus 28.4%, p ¼ 0.08. Ejection fraction (EF) > 50 was 71.3% (BITA) versus 66.3% (SITA), p < 0.001. Elective operations were performed in 88.4% (BITA) versus 83.3% (SITA), and urgent/emergent surgery was necessary in 11.6% (BITA) versus 16.7% (SITA), p < 0.001. Results Number of grafts was 3.76 (BITA) versus 3.06, p < 0.001. Duration of surgery (194.4 vs. 180.4 minutes) as well as X-clamp time (60.4 vs. 51.7 minutes) was prolonged for BITA, p < 0.001. Perioperative infarction rate revealed 3.2% (BITA) versus 3.6%, p ¼ 0.54. Frequency of rethoracotomy due to bleeding was higher in the BITA group (3.8 vs. 2.1%), p < 0.001. Sternal instabilities occurred in 2.3% (BITA) versus 2.2%, p ¼ 0.749. Duration of mechanical ventilation < 12 hours was 74.6 versus 77.1%, p ¼ 0.09 and duration of in-hospital stay was 10.5 versus 10.4 days, p ¼ 0.68. Thirty-day mortality was 2.4% (BITA) versus 3.0%, p ¼ 0.09. Multivariate analysis identified prolonged duration of surgery, BMI > 30, emergent operations, advanced age, and BITA grafting as predictor for sternal instabilities. EF < 30%, advanced age plus emergency were associated with increased 30-day mortality. Conclusion CABG using BITA can be performed routinely with good clinical results and low mortality. Compared with SITA grafting, bleeding complications were enhanced.
Cardiac surgery can be performed safely in patients with Child-Pugh class A and selected patients with Child-Pugh class B cirrhosis. Mid-term survival-rates within 8 years were not significantly different compared with a propensity-score pair-matched control group without cirrhosis.
Combined physical and emotional stress during sexual intercourse seems to present a meaningful promoter effect for acute aortic dissections, especially in younger males, but not in females. Despite self-evidence of this phenomenon, frequency of this sensitive issue appears to be surprisingly high.
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