The analyzed sample represents an epidemiological source of uncommon infection. Due to high HPV prevalence, more frequent cytological screening and/or liberal colposcopic evaluations should be performed in HIV-positive patients.
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this work was to survey HPV information from a random population of young women from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included cervical samples from 241 female students. To determine human papillomavirus status, polymerase chain reaction amplification was performed. HPV typing was determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Demographic data, life style, sexual and gynecological history were obtained through use of a structured questionnaire. RESULTS: The average age of the women was 19.6 years-old (SD=3.4 years). HPV prevalence was 27.4%. Nineteen different HPV genotypes were detected, including 13 high risk types. HPV 16 was the most prevalent type (6.2%), followed by 31 (4.1 %) and 66 (3.7%). Most of the oncogenic types belonged to the A9 species (28/48). The frequency of women infected by at least one oncogenic type was significantly higher than those only infected by low risk types (18.7% versus 7.5%). Cervical changes were detected in 12.5% of the sample and were significantly linked to infection with HPV types of the A9 species. Demographic variables, sexual initiation, or number of sexual partners were not associated with HPV prevalence, variety of HPV genotypes or oncogenic types. CONCLUSIONS: The relative frequency of HPV genotypes other than vaccine types in young females should be taken into account when evaluating vaccination strategies. Due to the high prevalence of HPV infection among the population studied, implementation of sex education in schools, promotion of condom use and an organized screening program to prevent cervical cancer must be encouraged for this age group.
ObjetivoAvaliar o estado nutricional e a ingestão alimentar de mulheres adultas sadias durante o ciclo menstrual.
MétodosQuarenta e cinco voluntárias foram acompanhadas durante três meses. A avaliação do estado nutricional foi baseada no índice de massa corporal, porcentagem de gordura e água corporal. Foram aplicados seis registros alimentares para análise da ingestão dos grupos de alimentos, usando como base o guia alimentar da pirâmide. Para a observação do sintoma "desejos alimentares", foram utilizados três "mapas de sintomas diários".
ResultadosOs valores médios de índice de massa corporal e de porcentagem de gordura corporal apresentaram-se normais em ambas as fases, entretanto foi observado maior percentual de mulheres com água corporal acima do padrão na fase lútea (77%). O consumo de alimentos do grupo complementar foi maior na fase lútea. Todos os outros grupos de alimentos, com exceção do grupo de carnes, apresentaram consumo inferior às recomendações, em ambas as fases. A intensidade do sintoma "desejos alimentares" foi leve durante o ciclo menstrual, não sendo observada diferença significativa entre as fases. O sintoma "desejos alimentares" associou--se positivamente com o aumento da ingestão do grupo complementar na fase lútea.
Objective: the detection rate of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is higher in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In an attempt to contribute to our epidemiological understanding of this coinfection and to investigate the activity of EBV in normal oral mucosa, we performed a cross-sectional study with HIV-positive patients. Methods: oral smears from 145 HIV-positive patients were collected between March 2010 and March 2011. Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) were used to genotype EBV and to detect EBNA-2 expression, respectively. Results: EBV DNA was detected in 48.3% of the study participants, of whom 32.85% were EBV-1 and 45.71% were EBV-2 carriers. Additionally, 14.28% were coinfected with both types. EBNA-2 mRNA was expressed in 45.7% of the EBV--positive samples, including 20.0% with EBV-1 only, 20.0% with EBV-2 only and 1.4% with both genotypes. Immune status affected the overall EBV infection, and EBV-2 positivity was significantly correlated with sexual lifestyle of the participants. EBV co-infection with both viral types was dependent upon HIV viral load and the activity of the EBNA-2 gene. Conclusion: we report a high prevalence of active EBV in the oral mucosa of asymptomatic HIV-seropositive individuals. This study addresses the need for monitoring and treatment of HIV-infected patients with EBV reactivation.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been found in several regions of the body, including the oral cavity. Recently, this virus has been associated with oropharyngeal cancer, but little is known about HPV transmission to the oral cavity. We carried out a study to investigate concurrent oral and cervical infections in 76 asymptomatic women attending a healthcare program. Demographic and behavior data were obtained through a structured questionnaire. Oral and cervical mucosa scrapings were collected and stored for DNA extraction. HPV DNA amplification was performed by polymerase chain reaction assay (PCR) using both primers My09/My11 and FAP59/64, followed by HPV typing with restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (RFLP) and sequencing. The data collected revealed no risk factors for HPV infection in these 76 women. HPV prevalence of 9.2 and 5.3% was found in cervical and oral mucosa, respectively. Concurrent infections by discordant types were detected in one case only. Sequencing procedures allowed us to detect a new putative HPV 17 subtype from the Betapapillomavirus genus. Our results support the view that cervical and oral HPV infections are independent events. The observed low prevalence of both oral and cervical HPV infections could be associated with attendance in a healthcare program.
Objectives to survey the prevalence of human papillomavirus, associated risk factors
and genotype distribution in women who were referred to cervical cancer
screening when attended in a Family Health Program. Method we conducted a cross-sectional survey, investigating 351 women. Polymerase
chain reaction for DNA amplification and restriction fragment length
polymorphism analysis were used to detect and typify the papillomavirus.
Results virus infection was detected in 8.8% of the samples. Among the 21 different
genotypes identified in this study, 14 were high risk for cervical cancer,
and the type 16 was the most prevalent type. The infection was associated
with women who had non-stable sexual partners. Low risk types were
associated with younger women, while the high risk group was linked to
altered cytology. Conclusion in this sample attended a Family Health Program, we found a low rate of
papillomavirus infection. Virus frequency was associated to sexual behavior.
However, the broad range of genotypes detected deserves attention regarding
the vaccine coverage, which includes only HPV prevalent types.
SUMMARYEpstein Barr Virus (EBV) is transmitted commonly by saliva, but it has been found in genital secretions, which suggests sexual transmission and led researchers to connect EBV and cervical neoplasia. People living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are reported to be at high risk of acquiring genital infections and cervical lesions. To verify the presence of EBV in the genital tract and/or it could affect cervical changes, we analyzed cervical smears from 85 HIV seropositive women for EBV DNA determination. EBV was only detected in two (2.3%) samples. The present study provides neither evidence for EBV as sexually transmitted infection nor discards this possibility.
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